England vs Wales Betting Tips, Preview & Predictions

[OC] An insight in the world of football kits - 454 teams that play in the most unusual colors

I would like to start with a humble warning, that this will be a longer than "usual" post. Hopefully, it will compensate with the amount of information you might deem as interesting. :)

After finishing my first journey into the world of colors in football, by counting which teams play in red & black color combination, I decided to pursue my next curiosity:
How many football teams in the world play in unusual colors?
By this, I was thinking of teams which have a “main” color that is rarely used (grey, brown, purple, pink, etc.) or use an uncommon color combination.
Because of this coronavirus madness that is going on, I was able to spend more hours for this project than I planned, so in the end I was able to go into almost every single league in the world. I checked teams from over 400 divisions, of different tiers, from all continents. Although it’s not an official list, I tried to include as many clubs as possible on it.
Now, you're probably asking yourself "How do you measure how rare or how common is in football a color / combination of colors?"
An exact answer is impossible to give, so I started the study using my own experience as a football supporter, finally finding an useful purpose for the thousands of hours spent on watching football games. Therefore, I used a subjective point of view and excluded the color combinations that I, personally, considered to be the most common in football teams, namely:

The selection criteria for the teams were as follows:
  1. The team should have their main kit in colors which are different than the ones enumerated above;
  2. The team must have played or been associated with the colors for several seasons;
  3. The team should be currently active (dissolved clubs were not included).

But enough introduction, let’s jump straight into the list of the most uncommon kit colors in the world of football:

CATEGORY I - Teams with 1 main color

1. Purple (includes purple+white or purple+black) - [73 clubs]
Notable teams: Fiorentina, Anderlecht, Toulouse, Austria Vienna, Real Valladolid.
Other teams (by conference):
UEFA (photo gallery here) - CE Carroi (Andorra), SV Austria Salzburg, Austria Klagenfurt (Austria), K Beerschot VA (Belgium), Etar Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgaria), NK Dubrava (Croatia), Daventry Town FC (England), Istres (France), VfL Osnabrück, Erzgebirge Aue (Germany), Ujpest, Békéscsaba 1912, Kecskemet TE (Hungary), ACD Legnano, AS Ostia Mare, Gioiese, Casoria Calcio 1979 (Italy), St. Andrews FC (Malta), FC Argeș, ASU Politehnica Timișoara, ACS Poli Timișoara (Romania), FK Graficar (Serbia), KFC Komarno (Slovakia), NK Maribor (Slovenia), Real Jaen, Alameda de Osuna EF, CD Becerril, Atletico Guadalajara, CD Guadalajara, CD Liendo, CD Santurtzi, CD Palencia, La Baneza (Spain) (Spain), Afjet Afyonspor, Hacettepe, Orduspor (Turkey).
Rest of the World (photo gallery here):

2. Burgundy (includes burgundy+white, or similar shades: maroon, claret, dark red, wine red) - [74 clubs]
Notable teams: AC Torino, Metz, Sparta Prague, CFR Cluj.
Other teams (by conference):
UEFA (photo gallery here) - FK Sarajevo (Bosnia), Chelmsford City, FC Northampton Town (England), JJK Jyväskylä (Finland), Dynamo Berlin (Germany), AEL Larissa (Greece), UM Selfoss (Iceland), Galway United (Ireland), Reggina, Cittadella, Salernitana, Trapani, Livorno, US Pontedera, Arezzo, Reggio Audace FC, Fano, US Capistrello, AC Morrone, AC Locri, ASD Bovalinese, Borgosesia Calcio, Milano City FC, Union Clodiense Chioggia, USD Breno, Olympia Agnonese, ASD Travestere Calcio, AC Nardo, ASD Citta di Acireale (Italy), FC Džiugas Telšiai (Lithuania), Nardo FK (Norway), CD Fatima, Clube Oriental de Lisboa (Portugal), Rapid Bucharest, Viitorul Ianca (Romania), AC Libertas (San Marino), Heart of Midlothian FC, Stenhousemuir FC (Scotland), NK Triglav Kranj (Slovenia), Independiente de Vallecas, CD Cenicero (Spain), Hatayspor, İnegölspor, Bandirmaspor, Elazigspor (Turkey), Cardiff Metropolitan University FC (Wales).
Rest of the World (photo gallery here):

3. Orange (includes orange+white) - [54 clubs]
--- full photo gallery here ---

4. Pink (includes pink+black) - [7 clubs]

5. Cream - [3 clubs]
Universitario, Universidad Tecnica Cajamarca, Leon de Huanuco (all from Peru).

6. Grey - [5 clubs]

7. Brown (includes brown+white) - [7 clubs]

CATEGORY II - Teams with 2 main colors

1. Green + Red [34 clubs]
Notable teams: Lokomotiv Moscow, Maritimo Funchal
Other teams (full photo galllery here):

2. Green + Blue [16 clubs]
Notable teams: Seattle Sounders
Other teams (full photo gallery here):

3. Blue + Azure (or any other combination of two shades of blue) [28 clubs]
Notable teams: Zenit St. Petersburg, Sydney FC
Other teams (full photo gallery here):

4. Orange + Blue [24 clubs]
Notable teams: Montpellier, Istanbul Bașakșehir
Other teams (full photo gallery here):

5. Orange + Green [5 clubs]

6. Orange + Grey [2 clubs]
AFC Odorheiu Secuiesc (Romania), Forge FC (Canada).

7. Orange + Purple [1 club] - FK Armavir (Russia)

8. Purple + Yellow [6 clubs]

9. Claret + Yellow / Amber [4 clubs]

10. Claret + Gold [2 clubs]
Deportes Tolima (Colombia), Stellenbosch FC (South Africa)

11. Claret + Blue [22 clubs]
Notable teams: Aston Villa, Burnley, West Ham United, Trabzonspor
Other teams (full photo gallery here):

12. Claret + Green [1 club] - Ciudad de Plasencia CF (Spain)

13. Pink + Blue [5 clubs]

14. Brown + Blue [1 club] - Al-Kawkab FC (Saudi Arabia)

15. Brown + Yellow [2 clubs]
Trujillanos FC (Venezuela), Ohod Club (Saudi Arabia)

16. Brown + Amber [1 club] - Sutton United (England)

17. Grey + Red [4 clubs]
UEFA - Cremonese (Italy), Pembroke Athleta FC (Malta), Strommen IF (Norway), Club Esportiu Jupiter (Spain).

18. Grey + Blue [2 club]

19. Lime Green + Black [10 clubs]

20. Lime Green + White [1 club] - Pirata FC (Peru)

CATEGORY III - Teams with 3 main colors

1. Blue + Yellow + Red [3 clubs]

2. Blue + Yellow + White [1 club] - CA Bella Vista (Uruguay)

3. Blue + Yellow + Black [1 club] - Real Sport Clube (Portugal)

4. Blue + Green + White [1 club] - St. Louis FC (USA)

5. Blue + Orange + White [2 clubs]

6. Orange + Green + Black [1 club] - Venezia (Italy)

7. Orange + Green + White [1 club] - Deportivo Masaya (Nicaragua)

8. Green + Yellow + Black [1 club] - GKS Jastrzębie (Poland)

9. Green + Yellow + Red [4 clubs]

10. Green + Red + White [13 clubs]
Notable teams: Fluminense
Other teams:

11. Green + Red + Black [11 clubs]

12. Green + Black + White [2 clubs]

13. Green + Burgundy + White [2 clubs]

14. Red + Orange + Black [1 club] - Nagoya Grampus (Japan)

15. Red + Yellow + Black [8 clubs]

16. Claret + Blue + Yellow [1 club] - Madureira EC (Brazil)

17. Pink + Blue + White [1 club] - Yangon United (Myanmar)

Category IV - Teams with 4 main colors

1. Red + Yellow + Green + White [4 clubs]

2. Red + Yellow + Blue + White [1 club] - ASDC Verbania (Italy)

3. Red + Yellow + Blue + Black [1 club] - Coras de Nayarit (Mexico)

Here they are. 454 teams from across the entire the world, from Feroe Island to Papua New Guinea or the 4th Italian league. This should be about it. However, if there are by any chance teams that I might have missed, please feel free to leave a comment and I will add them on the list.
Thank you for reading and hope you enjoyed it!
submitted by MrRobert44 to soccer [link] [comments]

Daily Megathread (20/03/2020)

🔗 Official COVID-19 links: 🦟 NHS COVID-19 info · 🏥 NHS 111 online service · 🗂 Government guidance · 🧍‍♀️ Social distancing info
🔗 /ukpolitics links: 📅 Week in Parliament · 🥕🥕 COVID-19 data dashboard · 📺 BBC News (rolling Twitch stream)
📈 Current figures as of 9am, 19th March: 3,269 (+643) confirmed cases. 144 (+40) people have died.

Daily overview

  • 🎓 Schools: Schools in England, Scotland, and Wales will be closed from the end of today until further notice. Schools in Northern Ireland closed on Wednesday and will be closed until further notice.
  • 📂 Coronavirus Bill: The Coronavirus Bill was introduced to the House of Commons on Wednesday. The Bill sets out various powers that the Government can introduce at any time. The legislation is time-limited for two years. Read a summary of what it does here (ping jaydenkieran for inaccuracies).
  • 🏛 NHS TV advertisement: The Government and the NHS have released a TV advertisement about coronavirus, featuring the Chief Medical Officer.
  • 💰 Later today, Rishi Sunak (the Chancellor) will announce an employment and wage subsidy package to try to protect millions of jobs.

COVID-19

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a new illness which features flu-like symptoms and currently has no vaccine. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the current outbreak of the virus as a pandemic on 11th March. The UK Govt's action plan sets out the UK's response to the pandemic. There are several "phases" to the plan, with the UK currently in the delay phase:
  • The "contain" phase: detect early cases, follow up close contacts, and prevent the disease spreading for as long as possible
  • The "delay" phase: slow the spread of the disease, which could include closing schools and cancelling public events
  • The "research" phase: work to develop effective care for the disease
  • The "mitigate" phase: minimise the impact of the disease on society

Current Government advice/approach

As of 16th March
  • To minimise your chance of catching the illness, wash your hands frequently for a duration of 20 seconds.
  • If you or someone in your family has a new persistent cough or high temperature:
    • If you live alone: self-isolate for 7 days.
    • If you live in a shared household (e.g. with friends, family etc.): you should all self-isolate for 14 days (even if not everyone develops symptoms).
  • If you don't have symptoms or no-one in your household has symptoms, stop non-essential contact with others and stop unnecessary travel. Work from home. Avoid pubs, clubs, theatres, etc.
  • Those with the most serious health conditions should be shielded from contact with others for around 12 weeks
  • From tomorrow, 17th March, emergency workers will no longer support mass gatherings "like they normally do"
  • If you suspect that you are infected with coronavirus, you should first use the NHS online service. Only call 111 if the service advises you to. Do not visit your GP as you risk infecting others.
For NHS info and help on coronavirus, see this page.

Meta notices

  • Don't forget that this Sunday is Mothers Day. If your mother is anything like mine, a bottle of gin is probably the best bet as it has multiple uses, including preservation (mummification, aha!), hand washing, paint stripper, degreaser, heat and light source, antifreeze and in cases of real desperation, you can drink it. /s

COVID-19 submissions

We ask that - for now - the majority of coronavirus discussion happens within these daily megathreads. Only make new threads for notable developments. Standalone submissions are acceptable for notable developments, including new cases and deaths (e.g DHSC tweets/page), new Government advice, and notable political news. Examples of what we are removing include general commentary/hot takes/opinion pieces about the virus, and news about other countries which bear no relation to the UK (e.g news about Italy or China).

Misinformation

Reddit is not a source of professional medical advice. Users can and will post inaccurate transmission methods, prevention methods, cures, and other misinformation. Please report any obvious misinformation that you see and we will take action. Send us a modmail if you are concerned about a user's behaviour. Always use the NHS 111 online service as your first port of call for COVID-19 information.
submitted by ukpolbot to ukpolitics [link] [comments]

Daily Megathread (19/03/2020)

🔗 Official COVID-19 links: 🦟 NHS COVID-19 info · 🏥 NHS 111 online service · 🗂 Government guidance · 🧍‍♀️ Social distancing info
🔗 /ukpolitics links: 📅 Week in Parliament · 🥕🥕 COVID-19 data dashboard · 📺 BBC News (rolling Twitch stream)
📈 Current figures as of 9am, 18th March: 2,626 (+676) confirmed cases. 103 (+34) people have died.

Daily overview

  • 🎓 Schools: Schools in England, Scotland, and Wales will be closed from tomorrow, 20th March, until further notice. Schools in Northern Ireland closed yesterday and will be closed until further notice.
  • 📂 Coronavirus Bill: The Coronavirus Bill was introduced to the House of Commons yesterday. The Bill sets out various powers that the Government can introduce at any time. The legislation is time-limited for two years. Read a summary of what it does here (ping jaydenkieran for inaccuracies).
  • 🏛 NHS TV advertisement: The Government and the NHS have released a TV advertisement about coronavirus, featuring the Chief Medical Officer.

COVID-19

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a new illness which features flu-like symptoms and currently has no vaccine. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the current outbreak of the virus as a pandemic on 11th March. The UK Govt's action plan sets out the UK's response to the pandemic. There are several "phases" to the plan, with the UK currently in the delay phase:
  • The "contain" phase: detect early cases, follow up close contacts, and prevent the disease spreading for as long as possible
  • The "delay" phase: slow the spread of the disease, which could include closing schools and cancelling public events
  • The "research" phase: work to develop effective care for the disease
  • The "mitigate" phase: minimise the impact of the disease on society

Current Government advice/approach

As of 16th March
  • To minimise your chance of catching the illness, wash your hands frequently for a duration of 20 seconds.
  • If you or someone in your family has a new persistent cough or high temperature:
    • If you live alone: self-isolate for 7 days.
    • If you live in a shared household (e.g. with friends, family etc.): you should all self-isolate for 14 days (even if not everyone develops symptoms).
  • If you don't have symptoms or no-one in your household has symptoms, stop non-essential contact with others and stop unnecessary travel. Work from home. Avoid pubs, clubs, theatres, etc.
  • Those with the most serious health conditions should be shielded from contact with others for around 12 weeks
  • From tomorrow, 17th March, emergency workers will no longer support mass gatherings "like they normally do"
  • If you suspect that you are infected with coronavirus, you should first use the NHS online service. Only call 111 if the service advises you to. Do not visit your GP as you risk infecting others.
For NHS info and help on coronavirus, see this page.

Meta notices

  • Don't forget that this Sunday is Mothers Day. If your mother is anything like mine, a bottle of gin is probably the best bet as it has multiple uses, including preservation (mummification, aha!), hand washing, paint stripper, degreaser, heat and light source, antifreeze and in cases of real desperation, you can drink it. /s

COVID-19 submissions

We ask that - for now - the majority of coronavirus discussion happens within these daily megathreads. Only make new threads for notable developments. Standalone submissions are acceptable for notable developments, including new cases and deaths (e.g DHSC tweets/page), new Government advice, and notable political news. Examples of what we are removing include general commentary/hot takes/opinion pieces about the virus, and news about other countries which bear no relation to the UK (e.g news about Italy or China).

Misinformation

Reddit is not a source of professional medical advice. Users can and will post inaccurate transmission methods, prevention methods, cures, and other misinformation. Please report any obvious misinformation that you see and we will take action. Send us a modmail if you are concerned about a user's behaviour. Always use the NHS 111 online service as your first port of call for COVID-19 information.
submitted by ukpolbot to ukpolitics [link] [comments]

We Are Sunderland, Episode 4: 2019/2020 Mid-Season Review

Previous Episodes:
Prologue
Captain Fantastic Meets The Lads
The Summer of Light
Onwards and Upward
With over 6 months of Coach Mick McCarthy's first season with Sunderland in the rear-view mirror, how does the league-leading squad shape up? Who were the biggest overachievers? Were there any underachievers? And what does each member of the squad need to look forward to/lookout for in their career at Sunderland?
GKs
• Jon McLaughlin, 32, Scotland. Coach Mick’s bet on Jon McLaughlin providing stability between the sticks paid off with 17 clean sheets in 22 games. McLaughlin has proven himself to be a top keeper at this level, putting on consistent performances in between the sticks and rising when needed to ensure the win. EA Match Average: 7.3
• Lee Burge, 26, England. Lee Burge has provided adequate protection off the bench, with 6 clean sheets in 12 games backing up the 2nd string defense. A couple of disappointing performances aside, Burge has provided what was needed of him. EA Match Average: 7.0
LB
• Declan John, 24, Wales. Declan John has impressed many in his time on loan at Sunderland. While consistently performing well at left-back in the league (and scoring once), it was a surprise deployment at the center of Sunderland’s midfield which may have been John breakout performance against Fleetwood Town in the Carabao Cup, scoring 2 goals and an assist in a Man of the Match performance. Rumor has it that if no one signs him at the end of the year, Sunderland may just give him a permanent contract. EA Match Average: 7.5
• Denver Hume, 21, England. Mostly coming off the bench, Denver Hume has been serviceable at left-back, covering for Declan John and displaying much improvement as the season progressed. If he continues at this rate of improvement, he’ll be competing for a starting position soon. EA Match Average: 6.8
• Liam Kelly, 18, England. A local lad who has just joined from the Academy of Light, Kelly is already showing improvement as he works on his stamina, crossing, long passes, and volleys. Versatile enough to play at both left and center back, Kelly may well debut for his club this season.
CB
• Tommy Smith, 29, New Zealand. Initially expected to be a starter, Tommy Smith has been a fixture of the backup brigade in his tenure at Sunderland so far. Despite that, Smith has performed well, racking up 9 clean sheets and displaying great consistency. EA Match Average: 7.3
• Bailey Wright, 71, Australia. The Aussie loanee has been a rock at defense for Sunderland, with 17 clean sheets in 25 appearances and only one yellow card. Another one of the loanees whom Sunderland is interested in keeping, though, like Declan John, suitors will be willing and able to offer him a Bosman. EA Match Average: 7.5
• Joel Lynch, 32, Wales. Joel Lynch grabbed the brass ring at the start of the season and has never looked back since. Scoring Sunderland’s first goal of the season, Lynch has been great defensively with 13 clean sheets in 19 appearances, whilst also adding danger from the air with 2 goals from corners. It’s performances like Lynch’s that make Sunderland reconsider their age quota. EA Match Average: 7.8
• Jordan Willis, 25, England. Jordan Willis has quietly done his job at the defensive end, covering for the older Lynch and holding his own when starting for the rotation side. His physical and technical skills have all shown improvement, which shows he may become an important piece at the club next year, despite a quiet year so far. EA Match Average: 7.0
• Oscar Kelly, 16, England. The defensive prodigy from the northeast, Oscar Kelly is the youngest player on Sunderland’s roster today. A physical specimen for his age, Kelly’s defensive skills have already started showing improvement with the first team. The coaches admire his defensive work rate and believe he is already at the stage where he can get his first few games, with a view to groom him to become a starter on defense.
RB
• Luke O’Nien, 25, England. If “Sunderland ‘Til I Die” showcased this lad’s hard work, this year has shown his work pay off. 3 goals, 5 assists, and 19 clean sheets in 18 games have made O’Nein, who possesses enough versatility to play both at RB and in the midfield area, a fan favorite at The Stadium of Light. Early days still, but some fans have begun whispers of O’Nein as a future club captain, given his work-rate and team player attitude. EA Match Average: 7.8
• Conor McLaughlin, 28, Northern Ireland. Conor McLaughlin has been a very good second choice left-back whenever he’s been called upon. With 7 clean sheets in 14 games, McLaughlin has provided the support needed from him from the bench. EA Match Average: 7.3
• Morgan Clarke, 17, England. Another local lad from the Academy, Morgan Clarke is a left-footed right-back who can also play center back. He has good physicals for his age, but his technical and mental attributes, by and large, need some work. Thankfully, he’s been showing many signs of improvement as his skills develop.
CDM
• Josh Scowen, 26, England. The imposing midfield destroyer has been one of the standout performers at Sunderland, acting as the destroyer and guarantee of stability needed for an attack-minded midfield in front of him. He’s combined his 16 clean sheets with 5 assists, proving he can also provide from the back when needed. EA Match Average: 7.7
• Ruben Sammut, 22, Scotland. Ruben Sammut has shown a good amount of improvement as Josh Scowen’s understudy and has been providing a steady presence for the rotation side as CDM. While not as impactful as Scowen, he has nevertheless contributed to 6 clean sheets and given 2 assists, showing what he can offer for the future. EA Match Average: 7.0
LM
• Aiden McGeady, 33, Ireland. The undisputed star of the team, Aiden McGeady has not lost a step so far this year. A consistently excellent member of the squad, the club captain has been leading by example with 7 goals, 10 assists and a flurry of skills as Sunderland races towards the League One trophy. EA Match Average: 8.2
• Neil Dumphy, 17, Ireland. The talented Irishman has started racking up a few appearances off the bench for some League 1 games, a testament to the potential he is believed to have. However, he has not been able to give a clear account of his talents, with a low level of offensive work rate, not helping matters. A loan move may be on the cards for the man if he does not end up as part of the rotation next year. EA Match Average: 6.3
• Dominic Collins, 18, England. Dominic Collins has been keeping it simple in his 5 appearances, some of which even being starting gigs. He has a lot of work to do, yet he’s shown he’s up for it by scoring a goal on his debut. Though with the re-shuffling of the squad due to Sunderland’s imminent striker signing, Collins’ starting gigs for the rotation side may dry up. EA Match Average: 7.1
CM
• Ethan Robson, 23, England. By far the biggest surprise of the season, nobody at the club expected Ethan Robson to do as well as he did this season. He is 2nd only to Kyle Lafferty in goals scored, with 16 goals provided alongside 7 assists and a partnership with George Dobson that is electrifying the Sunderland fanbase. EA Match Average: 8.0
• George Dobson, 22, England. The club’s designated playmaker, George Dobson has been the offensive architect of this Sunderland team. With 15 assists alongside 13 goals in 26 games, Dobson has been involved in everything good Sunderland has done this season, and only seems to be growing as time goes by. EA Match Average: 8.1
• Bali Mumba, 18, England. The Academy of Light graduate has grown by leaps and bounds under the tutelage of Coach Mick McCarthy. Whether coming off the bench or starting with the rotated side, Mumba has impressed everyone with his work rate and hustle on the pitch. He looks to be part of Sunderland’s future if he continues on this trajectory. EA Match Average: 7.2
RM
• Benjamin Kimpioka, 19, Sweden. The speedy young Swede has been one of the two most improved players at Sunderland so far, performing well at a rotation role that was considered above his level at the start of the year. If he continues growing at the rate, he’s been displaying so far this year, he may be in the thick of the squad rotation next year. EA Match Average: 7.0
• Lynden Gooch, 24, USA. Gooch’s speed on the right-wing has made him borderline unstoppable at times, always creating danger and opening the defense up for Lafferty, Robson, and Dobson. Like McGeady, he’s scored 7 and assisted 10 so far in a standout season. EA Match Average: 7.9
• Eliot Embleton, 20, England. Embleton has been solid in his role backing up Gooch at RM, and even impressive when starting or playing at CM. With admirable showings in cup competitions and consistently solid showings off the bench, Embleton’s performances and growth prime him up for a prominent role at Sunderland as the years pass, already being relied on consistently at present. EA Match Average: 7.1
ST
• Kyle Lafferty, 32, Northern Ireland. With the dominance he’s been showing at League 1 this year, there’s no wonder Sunderland have resigned to giving him the chance to cash in on a free transfer through pre-contract this January. 24 goals in all competitions, top scorer of League 1 and Sunderland’s highest volume creator with 16 assists, the stats cannot overstate Lafferty’s impact on Sunderland this year. His time here may be short, but if Sunderland goes back to the Championship, The Black Cats will be forever thankful. EA Match Average: 7.9
• Antoine Semenyo, 19, England. The final loanee of the squad, Semenyo’s injury has derailed what had seemed to be a very promising start to the season. Despite that, he’s been able to score 7 goals and rack up 4 assists in 18 appearances for the club, though the goal count may have been beefed up by the pre-season. Semenyo has 4 more months to show Sunderland, his home side Bristol City, or any other squad for that matter, that he is worth taking a chance on. EA Match Average: 7.2
Quick update on the series: I'm currently working on incorporating pictures into the series so that you can get more visual immersion into the story. What kinds of images would you like to see accompanying the text?
submitted by badgenes94 to FifaCareers [link] [comments]

Euro 2021 analysis/prediction. Ranking each team, Predicting each playoff

As I’m sure all of you reading this know Euro 2020 has been postponed to 2021 due to the ongoing pandemic that’s occurring. The tournament was supposed to start in about a week so I thought it’d be as good a time as any to share my thoughts about each team in the tournament and who I think realistically has a chance to win it.
I’ll divide the teams into 5 categories based on their chances of winning it and say a little bit about each one: Just happy to be here, Nothings impossible, Dark horse, Wouldn’t be surprised, and Serious contenders.
Note: these are my opinions based on current abilities of each team and I know a lot can change in a year. I will also be adding who I think will win each playoff bracket at the end and assign them a category then.
Category 1)
Just happy to be here:
Finland- Although Teemu Pukki has been pretty good for Norwich this season but I can’t see how they don’t finish bottom of their group.
Wales- Their run to the semi finals in 2016 was something special. But their talisman Gareth Bale will be 5 years older and some of the players that helped them do well in 2016 have also either aged poorly or retired might be able to snag a 3rd place spot in their group but I think it’s unlikely.
Czech Republic- Long gone are the high flying Czechs from Euro 2004 where they finished the top scoring team of the tournament. This competition they are in a pretty solid group where they would be lucky to finish 3rd.
Category 2)
Nothing is Impossible:
Turkey: This team is decent. They have a couple young players that are making a name for themselves at big European clubs. But barring a small miracle they probably peak at a First round exit.
Denmark: Led by their main man Cristian Eriksen they have a fairly strong team with good players in key areas. However if I’m honest I think they have a good shot at a second round or just maybe a Semi finals appearance if the draw is good to them but nothing more.
Austria: They have a few good players plying their trade in the Bundesliga and they are very solid defensively. However they are over reliant on David Alaba and I can’t see them getting past the second round.
Sweden: We saw them play their best football in a long time at World Cup 2018, seemingly they are better without the egocentric Zlatan. That said they have a few key players that could see them into the Semis at absolute best.
Switzerland: I was definitely debating whether to put them in this category or the next. I chose this one simply because there are too many teams that I think would be able to take care of them without serious issue. That said I do think they are a borderline dark horse and they might go farther than most think come 2021
Category 3)
Dark horse:
Russia: World Cup 2018 saw them at their best in a long time, narrowing losing to eventual finalists Croatia on penalties. With players Like Cheryshev and Golovin a few years more experienced with the same core as 2018 they could do some damage
Ukraine: This team topped their qualifying group that contained Portugal and Serbia, they are a team with a good mix of some decent young and a few savvy veterans. Definitely a team to watch out for.
Poland: Whipping boys of their group in 2018 and a quarter finals exit against Portugal in 2016, their last two major tournaments haven’t been great. That said with Lewandowski up top seemingly in the form of his life I wouldn’t write them off.
Category 4)
Wouldn’t be surprised:
Italy: A team that would usually be considered serious contenders their quality has dropped off slightly and the core of their team is in their mid-late 30s. They do have great players in midfield and their front line so I wouldn’t be surprised if they manage to take home the trophy but I also wouldn’t bet on it.
Croatia: Fresh off a World Cup final, albeit against possibly the easiest bracket in World Cup history. I think they have the talent to do some damage in this competition. That said their main men from 2018 are all in their 30s so I also wouldn’t be too surprised if they crash and burn earlier than expected.
Netherlands: Their defence is arguably the best in world football and their midfield is absolutely class as well. However they are seriously lacking a goal scoring threat in attack. It definitely wouldn’t be beyond them to beat teams 1-0 all tournament. I just don’t think they will be capable of beating teams that can score consistently without an out and out striker.
England: World Cup 2018 4th place finishers, they do have young players with plenty of talent as well as arguably the best finisher in world football in Harry Kane. They are seriously lacking in defence which is why I don’t consider them serious contenders. However I wouldn’t be surprised if they somehow someway manage to get it done.
Spain: Speaking of somehow getting it done. This team is far from it’s glory days of 2008-2012 but it’s still a great team with great talent. They have probably the best midfield if world football with a solid defence and a couple decent goal scorers up top. It’s not beyond them to win the whole thing but it’s also not exactly expected.
Germany: This is a team that 6 years ago won the World Cup. This is also a team that failed to beat Mexico and South Korea in the most recent tournament. With young stars like Kai Havertz and Leroy Sane I think their future is in great hands. That said I do think they will compete with the big teams this tournament but not quite be favourites.
Category 5)
Serious Contenders
Belgium: One goal away from a World Cup final, and probably trophy. I personally think that this team is the best man for man squad on the planet. Lukaku has found his form again at Inter, Kevin De Bruyne is still the best midfielder in the world, and although his form at Real Madrid hasn’t been excellent Eden Hazard is definitely still a world class player. This should be thinking title or bust with a squad that good.
Portugal: 2016 European champs, as well as inaugural UEFA Nations League Champs. This team is at the best it’s been since 2006. A shaky match against Uruguay in the World Cup saw them knocked out earlier than expected but they have the talent in midfield and attack to rival anyone in the world. Their defence is a minor issue but they have the likes of Ruben Dias coming up the ranks with an overload of talented fullbacks they should manage fine. A repeat is definitely on the cards and with Ronaldo still banging them in for fun they’re going to be difficult to stop.
France: What a surprise, this team is ridiculously good. Centre halves galore, a plethora of goal scoring up top and a relentless midfield, the only weak part of their team are their fullbacks and even then it wasn’t a serious issue in 2018 I doubt it’ll be an issue this time around. Like Belgium I think it’s Title or bust.
Playoff winners:
Path A) Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Romania.
Winner: Iceland Category: Happy to be here.
Path B) Bosnia, Northern Ireland, Slovakia, Republic of Ireland
Winner: Republic of Ireland Category: Happy to be here
Path C) Norway, Serbia, Scotland, Israel
Winner: Serbia Category: Nothing is Impossible
Path D) Georgia, Belarus, Macedonia, Kosovo
Winner: Kosovo Category: Happy to be here
Final prediction: Winner: Portugal
Biggest Surprise: Switzerland
Biggest Flop: Croatia
Top scorer: Lewandowski
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Homusubi Analyses All 116 Primaries (AKA the long post), Part 1: Europe and Africa

A few people have gone through all sixty-one voting districts and made their endorsements public, but nobody, so far, has aped the legendary Lacsirax Long Post from the previous season and gone through every vote, even if next week is now primaries-only week. I don't know what possessed me to go through every primary, especially seeing as there are (by my count) one hundred and sixteen of them (yes, there will be over a hundred votes next week),
Let me know if I've missed someone and if there's a primary that I haven't realised is happening. It is equally possible that I've identified a primary that actually won't happen, because the rules for what does and doesn't go into a primary are a bit different from last time (plus, there are more civs). So, for example, I already know that Nasser (modern Egypt) isn't going into the ancient Egypt primary despite having the same five-letter civ name, instead progressing directly to the general.
I reserve the right to change these endorsements if more evidence comes about, especially in the field of AI tests, but I'll be transparent about it if I do (I'll use strikethroughs and so on on my edits instead of just editing things out that turned out to be wrong).
Here goes.
DISTRICT 1
ICELAND
Our first vote is one with a repeat in it, and as you will soon find out, I'm not that keen on repeats. Ingolfur's Iceland, at least, was one of the more entertaining civs in Mk2, though, and made the very most it could out of a frankly terrible TSL. Therefore, unlike other primaries featuring repeats, I won't judge you if you vote for Ingolfur. Nonetheless, I'll be voting for Kristjan Eldjarn, a civilisation from the Cod Wars (no, not Call of Duty, I mean an actual war over the actual fish) with nicely fishy uniques to match.
SCOTLAND
The best Scotland mod is Alba under Alexander III, no question about it. Its uniques are pretty good, with plenty of passive production and naval bonuses that sound useful in a Royale, but what's more, it has input from our resident Scottish power ranker Lordie, and also has an absolutely beautiful colour scheme. AI-wise, it performed semi-decently in the Elimi-Nation AI game before getting voted out in favour of Northern Ireland. The only catch is that Alba might not be in the Scotland primary in the first place due to its separate name. In that case, of the two James VI's, I would recommend voting for LastSword's James, as I've seen the JFD one plenty of times in AI games and it has never impressed me.
DISTRICT 2
IRELAND
Ireland has got far more interesting since the S1 vote, in which there were only two options - contemporaries of each other - and one was disqualified for being in Mk2. We now have four, more diverse, Irelands. I'm not particularly thrilled at the thought of Malachy again or Brian Boru, not least because they didn't actually rule all Ireland even though they claimed to (afaik). Daniel O'Connell is a more interesting choice, an influential politician who never actually ruled Ireland but secured greatly expanded rights for his people, and is also a rather nice shade of blue. However, his AI is pretty lacklustre, which leaves us with Easter Rising hero Michael Collins and his pub UB (not kidding). None of these leaders achieved lasting Irish Unity as some might claim, but either way, I'm voting for Mick.
CORNWALL
I'm quite fond of Hiram's mods. We started modding at around the same time as each other, after all, and it took ages for either of us to learn Lua. Having said that, I don't think I can back him here. His Cornwall, nice colours notwithstanding, is a fairly awkward mixture of uniques that includes a rather incongruous vanilla Celtic UA. Therefore, I'm going for Senshi's Gwendolen, which includes both a rare female leader and plenty of well-integrated tin mine mechanics.
LONDON PRIMARY (UK/BRITAIN/ENGLAND)
My current home region and one of four primaries in which I am fielding a mod. No surprises, then, that I am giving my endorsement here to the wonderful Clement Attlee, living proof that sometimes it's best not to have a strong leader so much as a good one. His historical record and general status as an oddball choice for a Royale leader would make for a decent reason to endorse him on its own, but his AI is at least decent and his uniques are more relevant to a Royale setting than their peaceful economic nature may suggest at first - including a way to use all that gold. If for some reason you hate Attlee and would rather have a more Conservative choice here, I recommend Theresa May, who is in every way the Millard Fillmore of the Isles.
WALES
I am very much struggling to see the difference between the two Waleses, other than slightly more Welsh language used in Glyndwr's unique names than Llywelyn's (which must surely be a good thing). Civ AI Games's archive suggests that Llywelyn has the better AI, though, so I guess I'd go with him.
DISTRICT 3
DENMARK
The AI record of the Denmarks does not show any mention of a universally strong or weak variant, so let's go with history and all the other factors. I'm not the biggest fan of vanilla civs, so I'd rather not vote for vanilla Harald here despite their nice colours, so I'm going to go with Struensee, mainly because he's (imho) a more interesting historical figure than the other two; a doctor who was able to seize unofficial power in Denmark for a time, rather than 'just another monarch'.
NORWAY
The mod I've been working on recently has been quite close to Norway and includes quite a few references to it. Over the course of my research, I've encountered both Olaf II and Haakon VII, and I can think of worse leaders than both. Haakon IV, Mk2's Snoreway, is not really an experience I'd like to go back to. Of the other two, though, Olaf II edges it for me, although I'll be honest, most of that is voting for the modder. In this case, Lungora, best known as the creator of the maps on which the Royales are run.
SWEDEN
Back to politics on this one. Although he does not yet have an AI record that I know of, I'll most likely be voting for Olof Palme here, and hoping that whenever another civ does badly at something, I can do what I normally do and unfavourably compare them to the Swedes. Also, the last time we had a late-20th-century Scandinavian politician leader, it was brilliant. My second and third choices, and my recommendations for an older Sweden, are Karl XII and Birger Jarl, both of whom have excelled themselves in past AI games.
DISTRICT 4
PORTUGAL
How am I to know which Portugal to vote for? There are eight of 'em, and most of share about three names between them! Five of them have unfavourable comments in the CAG archive, leaving me with a choice of Afonso de Albuquerque, Antonia Salazar, and LS's Maria. The latter is city-state based, Salazar depends on whether you like dictators or not, and Afonso seems like a fun civ but not an easy one for the AI to use... y'know what, stuff this, vote for Firaxis's Maria aka the Mad from Mk2. Because why not.
SPAIN
Carlos III is the only Spain which has been campaigned for so far, and is also the only one of the earlier Spains not to have a leader which I've already grown bored of from either Civ 5 or Civ 6. However, RanseStoddard's analysis of AI values suggests that it might not be that good, which would leave us with General Franco. Personally, I'd vote for Carlos, but vote for Franco if you will. Just make sure not to vote for any Spain in the general, because #NeverSpain is way too entertaining to abandon now.
DISTRICT 5
BELGIUM
Leopold II is my choice here, for two reasons. One, because it has had a better AI record than Albert, for a civ which I particularly want to see competitive in the general for the 5th district. Two, because not every mod has the balls to reference Congolese atrocities and chocolate-making in the same set of uniques. You do you, Leo.
BRITTANY
This might be surprising to some, but I'm voting for Anne here. Although Nominoe is a much more polished mod, I haven't seen them do much AI-wise, and their uniques are very much orientated towards human play. So, Gedemo's sole European mod it is.
FLANDERS
Flanders memeage doesn't really dictate which Flanders it has to be - after all, the name is the important thing, so I doubt that the primary here will get as much attention as the general. The AI record favours LastSword's Flanders (Robert III) over JFD's Flanders (Rorbrecht III) while saying nothing about Moriboe's Flanders (Filips van de Elzas). I don't feel strongly about this primary at all, and it's worth pointing out that Robert might have the ability to polder one or two gulf water tiles with his UI, but at the end of the day, i'll vote for Filips van de Elzas. Modder diversity, and a mod I remember playing with a very long time ago.
FRANCE
Mon Dieu, fourteen kinds of France? Luckily, not too long ago there was an AI game which was pretty much nothing but Frances. The winner (spoiler alert, sorry) was Louis XI, who immediately rockets up to near the top of my list. The other standout one for me is Clemenceau, who I like mainly because of the weirdly large amount of First World War-era history I've had to study and thus the soft spot I've developed for leaders from that era. However, that's personal, so I feel more inclined to 'endorse' Louis (and his S-tier UA name, The Universal Spider), even if I might give my own vote to Clemenceau
SWITZERLAND
How are Switzerland mods supposed to fight each other in a primary? They're supposed to be neutral, aren't they? Either way, I'm backing LastSword's Dufour here, because I've seen JFD's plenty of times and its AI has never impressed.
DISTRICT 6
BOHEMIA
Vaclav (JFD's Bohemia) has a mixed AI record, but perhaps the most relevant one in a crowded European setting is its Groundhog Day performance, which was... not great. Therefore, I'm voting for Charles IV. His uniques sound fun - they'll either doom him completely or win him the game, admittedly most likely the former.
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Didn't we already do th... oh wait, Czechoslovakia. Pretty torn on this one, honestly. Both the Uighur and SabyZ versions have good and bad points on their uniques, and the Uighur one has such a mid-tier AI that I can't even predict whether or not Saby's is better or worse. Uighur's is the only one which conforms to orthodox mod structure (Saby's two uniques are a UB and a UI), but I'll probably vote for SabyZ's Czechoslovakia, purely because I like voting for civs made by CBR fans, and Saby made the previous Czechia.
GERMANY
I want to endorse Merkel. I badly want to endorse Merkel. The trouble is, her uniques make that very hard to do. Her UA is city-state based, and her UU might actually be a debuff for an AI, as she can only use it properly when she purchases it. Her saving grace is the UB, which provides extra production and culture based on events which are common as muck in a Royale. I'm not really feeling it with Wilhelm, despite his WWI connections, because I can't really look at him and think something other than "worse Bismarck". Moving on to actual Bismarck, although the JFD overhaul gives me a way out of voting vanilla, once again, it's city-state based. So I'm back where I started. I'm going to do it. Vote Angela Merkel. Imagine how fun it'd be if she started ruthlessly conquering like mad.
LIECHTENSTEIN
This one isn't even close. Johann I (QQQ) is one of those very old mods made by one-shot modders which might or might not work. Johann II (DuskJockey), on the other hand, is a very new mod with a creator still hanging around the place, and more complicated uniques to boot. Its AI record is mixed, but you can't have everything. Except when you're voting for Kakuei's Japan, of course.
SAXONY
This one's a toughie. On one hand, JFD's Saxony makes tourism actually useful, and has a more Saxon colour scheme. On the other, Firebug's mod makes faith useful, by making cities that look as if, were they given time to build up and get a few faith buildings going, they'd be entertainingly hard to capture. I think I'll vote for JFD's Saxony (Frederick Augustus I), though, as Mitteleuropa is not a forgiving region for late-developing civs, and Frederick Augustus I (aka Augustus the Strong) is the more entertaining historical character.
DISTRICT 7
GENOA
I'm going for LastSword's Genoa here. Why, you ask? Simple. Stronger crossbowmen which can automatically attack when embarked. What with the pivotal importance of the crossbow in many Civ games, and the embarkation-friendly Western Med, that could be a unique that - shock horror - actually does something.
ITALY
This comes down to whether you want to vote for Mussolini because Mussolini, or vote for not-Mussolini because not-Mussolini. It's a personal choice and not one I want to go into because I'm pretty sick of this argument (I'm not going to be disappointed if either wins by a landslide). However, I did promise I'd endorse someone in every primary. So, on the basis of a slightly better AI record (although both are mid-tier) in a difficult TSL, Victor Emmanuel III it is.
PAPAL STATES
Unsurprisingly, all three Papal civs are faith-based. The AI record only mentions one of the three, and so a lot of this comes down to who makes the most use of that faith outside of religion. I'm going with Innocent III, partly because his unique Great Generals make faith a bit more useful in military matters, and partly, of course, because he's the Battle Pope with the decidedly non-turtley AI record. Deus Vult and all that!
ROME
Whoever I pick here, I'm going to make someone angry. So I'll apologise in advance and say that, one, I know embarrassingly little about most of these leaders, and two, my choice isn't based on history. It's JFD's Julius Caesar. This is partly because they have been known to perform very admirably in AI games, unlike most of the other Romes, and partly because their icon and colour combination are very classic Rome and get me into that S.P.Q.R. state of mind more than most of them do.
DISTRICT 8
ATHENS
Ugh, both of these have bad AI records. MC's Athens has the classic colour scheme and is the one probably more familiar to long-time watchers. LastSword's, however, has the more intriguing uniques, including an interesting degree of freedom when researching techs and Civ 6-style cities that aren't coastal but can still build naval units. So LastSword's Athens it is.
AUSTRIA
Austria is one of my favourite vanilla civs, but unfortunately, its star attraction has to do with city-states, which don't exist here. A nifty UU that's one of the few to fall in the Enlightenment Era seals the deal for me, then - JFD's Joseph II it is. It's also yellow and black, for all the history nerds frustrated by the constant use of white and red for Austria in everything despite the precedent.
BULGARIA
Six Bulgarias? Seriously? And quite a few of them have badass UA names to boot. One of them even seems to be led by a Harry Potter character. I'll follow the lead of colour schemes, very snowbally-sounding UAs, and endorsements from ExplosiveWatermelon, and pick Ferdinand I, but this is not a primary I'm sure about my choices in at all.
GREECE
I'm not sure whether or not this primary is going to happen, as one civ is vanilla Greece and the other is an early 20th-century modern Greece. If it does come to this, though, despite their moderate AI record and very peaceful unique set, I'll be rooting for Eleftherios Venizelos, purely because a modern and real-life Greek hero makes a nice change sometimes from most of the civs in this region.
HUNGARY
Another primary in which the AI record becomes king for my decision - my Hungarian friend's favourite leader doesn't have a mod, if I recall correctly - and it's driving me towards Miklos Horthy. The three other Hungaries, which also have less militaristic uniques. The AI record says negative things about three of the civs here, see, and the fourth one is Horthy, who has performed well in Elimi-Nation so far. Another vote for a rather different Mi(c)k to the last one.
ROMANIA
I don't know that much about the Balkans, OK? Please stop throwing primaries at me. Another AI one, then, I guess. Carol I has been entertaining - sometimes successful, sometimes not, but never sleepy - in AI games in the past, so I'm leaning towards him. But again, don't take my word as gospel here, especially seeing as DJSHenninger's Mihai Viteazul has the wonderful UA name The Eagle, Aurochs, and Seven Hills. That's right up there with One Million Elephants and a White Parasol (that's Laos) for the "Best UA Names Involving Random Animals and Objects" competition.
SERBIA
Another AI-performance process of elimination jobby here. Stefan Dusan (Discord emoji loyalty) and Peter I Karadjordjevic (WWI character loyalty) are both net positives for a Serbia civ imho, but this is another example of a civ being beset with bad AI records. The exception, with no record whatsoever, is DJSHenninger's Peter, whom I thus reluctantly endorse.
THEBES
I'm backing LastSword's Thebes here, despite it having the worse colour scheme by some distance. Firebug's uniques, while easier to understand than the competition, are CS-based, and what is more, their performance in Elimi-Nation was decidedly mediocre.
WALLACHIA
The EU4 fans' favourite and home to Dracula, Wallachia has two leaders and three mods to choose from. None of them have a good AI record, other than the mystery Mircea Wallachia with no record, but you can't not vote for Vlad in Wallachia. So of the two we're left with, I'm going with DJSHenninger's Vlad, with its unusual light-green-on-black colour scheme and steamrolly UA with the potential to make enemies adjacent to the vampire army 25 percent weaker by the end of the game.
YUGOSLAVIA
I'm voting for Tito here. It's mainly because I find him to be a more interesting figure than yet another Peter, and because the Non-Aligned Movement is criminally underrated. Don't worry too much about the UA being city-state based, as his UU and UB do not mention them. Seriously though, why would you want a Yugoslavia that isn't Tito?
DISTRICT 9
LITHUANIA
Before I start this write-up, I would like to thank the people of Lithuania for looking at the countries to their south and west, seeing a veritable sea of Peters and Stephens with numbers after their names, and deciding, no, we're giving our monarchs uniquely Lithuanian-sounding names and not repeating them. Anyway, AI. Gediminas's Lithuania seems to have a consistent record of starting out strong but collapsing, so take from that what you will. Vytautas is a unique sort of civ that benefits from having no religions (presumably a reference to Lithuania's unusually long history of paganism) and no city connections. Last but not least is Mindaugas, who doesn't seem to do much with his uniques if he isn't lucky enough to get a religion, so I'm not particularly confident. I think I'll just go with Gediminas. It's the Lithuania we all know and love by now, and at least it tries hard.
POLAND
Twelve! Twelve Polands! Much of this is thanks to the (elected) monarch of this part of the world, LastSword, who has eight Polands under his belt. I know that a fair few people are taking my lead on Japanese affairs, and, grateful for that as I am, it seems only fair to return the favour for other modders with a clear 'capital' to their mod empire. So that's Pilsudski out, despite his being an interesting and impressive historical figure. It has to be an LS Poland. Put all eight above the rest - this is a joint endorsement. As for which one to put first, there was an AI Game of Polands ages ago, but the winner... um, wasn't a Poland. The only one recorded as being a dominant power is John III Sobiesko, a vaguely sciencey cavalry civ. The other two I would prioritise are Sigismund III, the sole blue Poland, whose laissez-faire management promoting UA gives literally free happiness when it's being played by an AI, and which also gets stronger ranged attacks from cities; and Stephen Bathory, who inherits vanilla Poland's strong UA and has strong-sounding musketman and zoo replacements.
DISTRICT 10
FINLAND
I loved Top Kek, but especially seeing as I have already endorsed Olof Palme in Sweden, I wonder if it's time to let the other Finland shine. Mannerheim, hero of the Winter War, makes culture useful in war with unique promotions, and also has a sauna as a UB in true Finnish fashion, which automatically heals all your units trained in a Sauna city every turn. Honestly, even writing this has made me more enthusiastic about Finland, Monty Python/Scandinavia and the World references and all.
RUSSIA (ST PETERSBURG)
Especially if you discount the boring Civ 5/6 leader choices, this primary for me comes down to two choices. Alexander Nevsky can force peace with certain civs by sending three trade routes to them, which could either be very crafty or irritating depending on how the AI uses it. Alternatively, there's Tsar Nicholas II, known to be good with his big carpets and who won a hotly-contested Arctic AI game not too long ago. On balance I'm probably going with Alexander Nevsky, a more historically successful figure and one that makes a nice change from the normal Russias, but feel free to vote for Tsar Nick, especially if you also want a Soviet Russia in the 11th and are anticipating the rematch of the ages.
DISTRICT 11
KIEVAN RUS'
The famous Kievan Rus' mod, Tomatekh's Yaroslav, has a very mixed AI record and one CS-based unique. The unknown challenger, TarcisioCM's Olga, on the other hand, has a set of nifty uniques based around various kinds of diplomatic deals, and they're more useful in an AI game than that sounds. To be honest, Olga sounds like a better AI bet, but I'm an old modder, and we look out for our own. Yaroslav was one of Tomatekh's first mods at a time when Lua modding was in its infancy, and I'll be voting for it so we can be reminded - in the words of Emperor Meiji from The Last Samurai - who we are and where we come from.
USSR
Lenin or Stalin? It's up there with "Mario or Luigi?", "gif or jif?", and "one horse-sized duck or twenty duck-sized horses?". It's a question that's echoed down the ages anywhere with a decent enough communist presence - I say 'decent' because every proper town has one - and now it has come to CBR. However, the historical version of this question is a much deeper one than the CBR version, as the latter essentially boils down to whether or not you want a repeat of Mk2's USSR, which was Stalin. I don't, particularly; I'd be perfectly happy with more Soviets, but that can be achieved without the full repeat. I'm voting for a combustible Lenin that burns life's house down.
DISTRICT 13
BYZANTIUM
I said STOP THROWING PRIMARIES AT ME, BALKANS. Weren't you listening? And this one's Rome all over again. The Lacs Long Post from last time recommends DJSHenninger's Basil II, but the AI record seems to lean more towards JFD's Justinian I. There's also DJSHenninger's Justinian I, not just there to make the last two choices more confusing, but also there because its background is shocking pink, which in my humble opinion is a reason to choose it in itself. Ultimately, though, I'm picking another mod. Although I do like voting for modders in their strongholds, and this is DJSHenninger's, this time I'm going for EnigmaConundrum's Basil II, as this is the more likely of the two of (CBR fan) EnigmaConundrum's mods to qualify. The other one, after all, is an America.
HITTITES
These Middle Eastern regions are irritating for me, because I know that the region has a shitload of history, but I am equally aware that I don't know much of it at all beyond modern times. The Hittites are a prime example of this. I know that they lived near and interacted with ancient Greeks and Egyptians, and that they left behind a decent amount of archaeology, and that's... it, really. So if you know who Suppiluliuma I or Mursili II are and think one's cooler than the other, vote for them. As for me, if I even vote at all in this primary, I'll vote Suppiluliuma I, because Mursili crashed and burned in Elimi-Nation.
ISRAEL
Two Israels, hmm, I'll definitely go for... oh phew, they're both the Biblical sort of Israel. David was the one we had in Mk2, and although he'd be welcome to come back, I wonder if Solomon might be worth a look-in here. If you want more Israeli scouts, Mk2-style, then David is the one to pick, and besides it's quite a nice civ to look at imho. I might go Solomon, though, for his better AI record and not-repeat-ness.
JERUSALEM
Neither has that good an AI record, so I'm going on uniques, not least because even the names of these two are the same but for one having a larger Roman numeral suffix. Baldwin III it is. Its uniques, with their talk of unique 'crusading orders', are reminiscent of a LastSword civ, odd seeing as the LastSword Jerusalem is the other one. Anyway, although Baldwin IV has a lovely white and gold colour scheme, its uniques don't really come into play when there aren't any holy cities nearby (so 95% of the time), so I'm going for the more versatile MC option.
LYDIA
The two Lydias don't have much between them. Neither has an AI record, and all three uniques reference the same things, although the CurlySnail version has more interesting specific effects for the bonuses. It's down to modders, then, and although ryanjames deserves credit for being the creator of the Manx, I'm going for CurlySnail's Lydia, not least because it's clear from the campaigning that he cares about getting his civs in.
OTTOMANS
I feel like I'm going through Death by Mediterranean Primary right now, and the Ottos, with their seven civs to choose from - even after JFD's Mehmed was removed for being an immediate repeat - aren't helping one bit. Being judgemental about AI history eliminates Mehmed V, Mahmud II, and vanilla, but we're still left with four. I'll pick Mehmed II (note, do not confuse with Mahmud II) by LastSword, which at least looks like a strong scientific pick, gaining science when building a military and featuring a semi-liberalised observatory UB.
PHOENICIA
We've reached the Land of Purple, however much these interminable Med primaries are reminding me that Pokemon teaches us that purple means poison. Nonetheless, I'm immediately biased against LastSword's Pygmalion due to lack of violet. That leaves us with the two Hirams, neither of which was made by his modder namesake. Sukritact's Phoenicia underperformed in Elimi-Nation, but has a decent AI record in general, and was responsible for a brief if entertaining game of cat and mouse before their demise in the aforementioned game. I'm still going with the apparently "militaristic" AI of MayorS's Hiram, though, albeit partly because their colour scheme is double purple. Well, pink on purple. Close enough.
UMAYYADS
Last one in the 13th! This one is fairly close, both of them have mid-tier AI and pleasant enough colour schemes. The uniques, too, aren't too far off from one another in quality, but I'm giving the edge to DJSHenninger's Al-Walid I, which can make faith output actually useful by passively spawning military units based on said statistic. Put this in the "I don't know really" pile, though. Al-Malik's looks quite fun to play as, at least.
DISTRICT 14
GEORGIA
I don't want Georgia. Like, seriously, I don't want Georgia. Tamar fans feel so entitled sometimes, especially when the competition in this famously diverse part of the world is so fierce. Abkhazia! The Khazar Khaganate! There are so many better options! Therefore, I'm backing David IV in the primary, mainly to reduce the chances of Georgia winning the general. I encourage anyone else who wants a non-Georgia civ in this district to do the same.
DISTRICT 15
AYYUBIDS
This is another one where I need to search a bit to find excuses to back one civ over another, given that the repeat/not-repeat question is going to loom more over this primary than the actual relative merits of the two Ayyubid civs. Neither has a good AI record. The MC one, which is the one from Mk2, has the nicer colour scheme by some distance (imho), but its uniques are a bit more situational and a bit more dependent on the religion game. Therefore - and this is very much a tentative thing, I know 95% of people will ignore this one way or the other, which sounds OK to me - this is one of the rare times I'll back a repeat, of a civ that we didn't see much of at all in Mk2 at the end of the day. MC's Saladin it is.
EGYPT (ANCIENT)
Ancient Egypt has perhaps the highest "total history:history Homu knows" ratio of any primary in the game. It sounds fascinating, but I still haven't got around to actually learning much about the details yet, especially seeing as there's so much of it. Like, thousands of years. Anyway, I'm deferring to someone who knows better here - in this case, our friendly neighbourhood modding expert, TopHatPaladin - and backing Thutmose, with Djoser a good second. HOWEVER, I know of one effort underway to do a much more comprehensive analysis of this primary, so I might hold back on full-throated endorsements just yet.
EGYPT (PTOLEMAIC)
I'm going with Cleopatra here, because if we're going Ptolemaic, we might as well go the whole way. Yes, she probably doesn't deserve the amount of attention history has given her, but on the other hand, it's good to have a few familiar faces, and I find Cleo less boring than, say, Peter I. Probably because of the RNG biasing towards Russia the few times I played Civ 6. If you want to vote Ptolemy, I'm not going to try and persuade you otherwise.
DISTRICT 16
CARTHAGE
Seriously, I had to google which Carthage it was that was in Mk2. Turns out it was Hannibal, and I don't feel as warmly towards a Hannibal repeat as I would for Saladin or David. So we're down to Didos. So, for once, I'm going vanilla. I'm endorsing Firaxis Dido, because JFD's edited UA, despite being further away from Hannibal than the vanilla one is, seems distinctly unfun with its gobbling up sea tiles in a crowded area.
DISTRICT 18
ASHANTI
Another repeat vs not-repeat primary, and the third one of the many primaries of this category in which I'm endorsing the repeat. Although my top choice in this region is not either Ashanti (Sankara! Sankara! Sankaraaaaaaa!), I can't help but smile if I consider a return of the civ's legendary Pikeman, this time in disembarked form. Vote MC's Osei Tutu for old school gold stool cool.
DISTRICT 19
KANEM BORNU
A lower-mid tier AI and general feeling that Gedemo is underappreciated won't stop me in this case from going with DMS/MC's Idris Alauma in this humdrum primary. It has a slightly-below-average AI record, but it is one with one breakout included, and although its uniques feel rather unpredictable, that's a good thing, surely?
NOK
Again, sorry Gedemo, but I'm going with Ultra's Nok here. I don't know much about the culture, but that's not the point here. Nok is a legend in the modding community, a mod that took so long to come out it became a meme, and then... it actually got released. Let's celebrate that and get it through the primary, shall we? (Not my top choice in the general, but still.) Also, snakes.
NRI
The bombshell here is JFD's Nri UA: civs being unable to declare war on them before the Industrial Era if they share "their" religion. While it's unclear whether that means they have to have founded it or not, that would seriously change the course of the Africa game, especially seeing as they are apparently unlikely to declare wars on their own. Moriboe's doesn't seem militaristic either, despite its UA that sucks population from other civs (again, only in "pre-modern" times), and I feel like taking a bit of a punt on an unusual Africa. JFD's Nri it is.
DISTRICT 21
ETHIOPIA
If Ethiopia has two carbon atoms in it, what's the rest of it made from? ...Chemistry gags aside, there are five Ethiopias, courtesy of DMS, for whom Addis Ababa appears to be something of a centre of power. Of course, I'm immediately going to rule out the vanilla version, which is also a repeat. Likewise, I don't feel enthusiastic about Menelik II, who inherited the vanilla uniques in the DMS split. DMS's Haile might be worth a look with its updated uniques - including the Makonnen triplane, which I keep misreading as Harkonnen triplane - but I think I'm going with Zara Yaqob. She's another female leader, with defensive-religious hybrid uniques that sound like they could be as awkward for would-be invaders as Gudit's were against Zimbabwe. Oh, and if you like Indira Gandhi's colour scheme, Zara isn't too far off.
SOMALIA
I'm leaning towards TopHat's Mohammed Siad Barre in Africa's last primary. To be honest, I don't quite understand some of the uniques of the other Somalia, and although that hasn't stopped me in the past, loyalty to a modder who's helped me out on countless occasions must play a part here, along with an intriguing mixture of naval military, trade, and unique writers, and a rather nice blue colour scheme.
submitted by Homusubi to civbattleroyale [link] [comments]

QF SLEDGE TREAD

AUSTRALIA: BEALE LOOKS LIKE HE’S BEEN PLAYING SOBER THE WHOLE TOURNAMENT. GET THAT MAN A DRINK.
ENGLAND: SURE YOU LOOK GOOD NOW BUT YOU’RE A FARRELL RED CARD, VUNIPOLA ANKLE OR A TUILAGI HAMSTRING AWAY FROM BEING SHIT.
IRELAND: WILL ACTUALLY BEAT THE ALL BLACKS BUT THEN BE DRUNK TILL WEDNESDAY AND GET SMASHED BY ENGLAND.
NEW ZEALAND: THE ONLY REASON YOU GUYS ARE HAPPY TO NOT BE PLAYING JAPAN IS BECAUSE YOU’D LOSE YOUR REFEREE BIAS.
WALES: ARE GOING SHIT THE BED. I’D BET ON IT.
FRANCE: ARE BEYOND PARODY AT THIS STAGE.
SOUTH AFRICA: LOOKING FORWARD TO A JUICY PERFORMANCE ONCE THEY’VE FINISHED OILING EACH OTHERS ABS.
JAPAN: JUST A WEEK AHEAD OF IRELAND ON THE DRINKING STAGE. ONCE THEY SOBER UP IN THE NEXT 12 HOURS THE FEAR IS REALLY GOING TO SET IN.
RULES: FLAIR UP AND SPEAK UP!
submitted by DidLenFindTheRabbits to rugbyunion [link] [comments]

World Cup UHC 2020 - Episode 6 (Finale)

Hello and welcome back to World Cup UHC!

World Cup UHC is a yearly recorded round with people from all around the world. For our fourth season, we've got 28 players from 5 continents, each one representing their own country in a Vanilla+ FFA. This season was organised by Daffz and hosted on Arctic. The intro was created by YellowVitt, while the renders were made by tagggz. We also have a spectator POV from Flouzemaker.
Country Representative Link
Argentina m4ku Goleada
Canada Alan Stand on Guard
Croatia 5kylord Veliko Finale!
Czech Republic Kubaslov Episode 6
England TheSonicJoey A Chance?
New Zealand Awticon Episode 6
Scotland ScottPirie Episode 6
South Korea Jae Episode 6
Spain EyeBlack Al menos España ganó el Mundial
Spectator Flouzemaker Place Your Bets
Place Country Representative Killed by Episode
28th Philippines InsertDotJpeg PvE 1
27th Malta IsaacMT PvE 1
26th Wales Welsh10 Eyeblack 2
25th Cambodia WABBIT Maku 2
24th France Haon Jordtim 3
23th Australia Jordtim Awticon 3
22nd Israel LegoBeast PvE 3
21st Netherlands Birble PvE 3
20th USA ThePeridotKnight Awticon 3
19th Paraguay BowSpamLover Awticon 4
18th Italy Fra49 xMisha 4
17th Norway SuperGamerPlays 5kylord 4
16th Russia xMisha Awticon 4
15th Belgium BSBrent Kubaslov 4
14th Portugal Evan TheSonicJoey 5
13th Malaysia Fancyyy Daffz 5
12th Uruguay Daffz ScottPirie 5
11th Singapore Sluggyg Awticon 5
10th Germany Kiinako_ m4ku 5
submitted by Dffz to ultrahardcore [link] [comments]

The Biggest Secret - An Interview with David Icke -

by Rick Martin
7/30/99
from DavidIcke Website


Note from Stephanie Relfe:

David Icke does not believe in Jesus, and I understand that he does not even believe in God. It is my experience that, while much of his information is HIGHLY valuable, his book “The Biggest Secret” is a little too overwhelming for some people, not necessarily because the information is too hot to handle, but because at the same time that he gives people information which can cause fear, he takes away the very thing which gives many people freedom from fear, and that is their faith in and connection to God and/or Jesus. Most of his information is excellent. I recommend it, as long as this point is kept in mind.

David Icke has become a highly sought-after lecturer, worldwide, and it is no wonder. His books in recent years have covered the full range of topics concerning the so-called "elite" global controllers and their stranglehold on the masses.

His most recent book, titled “The Biggest Secret”, is his most daring work to date. To say that it takes on even more than its title suggests, is still quite an understatement.

On July 8, 1999, I caught up with David, by telephone, in London. While he was recovering from a prolonged bout with a flu bug, and we would have been thankful with just a short interview under the circumstances, I think you will agree with me that he was in fine form during this conversation.

David hits hard on a wide range of topics, some of which will, surely, stretch your beliefs and expand your thinking. This is, literally, a "fasten your seatbelts and hold on to your hat" kind of conversation which captures David's riveting speaking style as best that can be done in print.

If you do not read this interview with an open mind, you will probably just dismiss the entire thing. But as a careful reading of The Biggest Lie [Secret] will reveal, David has definitely done his homework-as usual!

As David told me, he has just done a month in Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, and America. He is now, as I write, in South Africa for a month, then back to America in September. His very controversial video tape with Illuminati mind-control victim Arizona Wilder, is available from Bookworld and elsewhere, but for your convenience The SPECTRUM is also carrying this video Revelations of a Mother Goddess and his newest book The Biggest Secret. (for information about this book "click" HERE)

With all of that said, sit back and read the latest insights from a researcher who has dared to probe into the darkest corners and speak out on some areas that, to-date, seemingly no one, on a global scale, has been willing to touch. It is very appropriate that two of David's other books include: And The Truth Shall Set You Free and The Robot's Rebellion.

We are in a time when personal responsibility is the challenge affecting us all-big time! What if each of us simply made a resolution to follow the three suggestions David makes near the end of his conversation? Sometimes the simplest ideas to put into words are the hardest to truly carry out.







Part 1

Martin: I'm talking to you at the seat of global power today, namely London. Not only are you located at the seat of power, but there are many horrific and nasty things taking place behind the seemingly respectable old stone walls of those various places.

David Icke: Right, absolutely.

Martin: As our readers are very well versed on the Global Controllers generally, let's cut to the chase with the bad news first and go from there. What is The Biggest Secret, as your new book is so appropriately titled?

David Icke: The 'biggest secret' that's emerging is that back in the ancient world, we can debate when, but certainly you can pick it up around 5,000 B.C., a series of bloodlines emerged, particularly but not exclusively-particularly, really, the focus of power was in the Near and Middle East.

These bloodlines became the leaders and the Royal lines of that ancient Near and Middle Eastern area. This bloodline would appear to go back to an extra-terrestrial intervention which created hybrid bloodlines. This, I think, is referred to in the Old Testament which is, of course, just an edited rewrite of more ancient texts where it talks about the "sons of God" who interbred with the "daughters of men", creating the hybrid line, the Nefilim/Nephilim. When you go back to the Hebrew, the "sons of God" become the "sons of the gods". And so often when you see the translation into the English, the King James version of the Bible, as God in the Old Testament, it actually is translated from the word meaning gods.

And these bloodlines moved over as time went on and became the British and European Aristocracy and Royal Families. The incessant interbreeding between these family lines is not due to snobbery, but their desire to hold a specific genetic structure.

Thanks to-well, let's go back a little. The focus in the ancient world of these bloodlines appears to be in Babylon, and eventually they moved their epicenter to Rome. And it was when they were in Rome, epicentering in Rome, that we had the Great Roman Empire.

This was a key point in the historical expansion of the power of these bloodlines across the planet. Eventually, one of their number, called William of Orange, to whom every surviving Royal Family in Europe is related, was manipulated onto the throne of England in 1689, and he was the one who signed the Charter that created the Bank of England in 1694.

At that point, this group -call it the Illuminati, for want of a better word- these bloodlines, in other words, moved their epicenter at an operational level, because it has other levels all around the world, but at an operational level, the spider in the center of the pyramid became London. And then, of course, as years unfolded, came this key time in the expansion of these bloodlines, the Great British Empire, and as a result of that they were able to move into the Americas, Australia, Africa, and New Zealand. They show up as far as China.

It was said that the Sun never set on the British Empire. Well, when you see the size of Britain, compared with the world-when I was a kid it was a great mystery to me how these small islands you can hardly see on the globe actually had an empire that spanned the world. But now I do understand that it was not the British Empire at all, it was the empire of these bloodlines, that had centered themselves in Britain, which is a very different thing.

Now, what happened, it's increasingly becoming clear, is that these bloodlines then took the positions of power in these countries of the British Empire. But, there are two forms of power. There's overt power, dictatorship - you can see it, feel it, touch it and taste - and they always have a finite life because eventually, when people know they're in a dictatorship, in a prison, they'll rebel against it. The most effective form of control, and this is what happened when the so-called European Empires, like the British Empire, started to roll-back, particularly in this century, they replaced overt in-your-face control with covert control.

And that is the ultimate control, because people do not rebel against not being free when they think they are. And so, what happened as these empires, as the British Empire, rolled-back on the surface, and of course, "Oh, the great British Empire is over, poor old Britain has lost her power", they actually left out in those countries the bloodlines and the secret society networks through which they work and they've gone on running those countries, including not least, in fact, most and emphatically, the United States, ever since it was formed.

And when you look at the genealogy of American Presidents, it is utterly astonishing in support of this. There are about 260 million Americans, at the moment. And if you add up all those who have called themselves American since 1776, it will run into hundreds and hundreds of millions. Well, 42 of those hundreds of millions have actually become President of the United States. You would think, on the law of averages alone, that those 42 would have some tremendous genetic diversity.

Well, they don't. According to Burke's Peerage, the bible of Aristocratic and Royal genealogy based in London, every American election since and including George Washington, in 1789, has been won by the candidate with the most European Royal genes. 33 of the 42 are genetically related to two people: Charlemagne (King), the most famous monarch of what we call France, and Alfred the Great, the King of England. They're the two countries, overwhelmingly, France and Britain, out of which these bloodlines came in Europe.

Now, since The Biggest Secret came out, and I told the story in there of how these bloodlines came out of the Near and Middle East, how the blueprint of control by religion was formed in Babylon, where their Trinity of Nimrod, Tammuz the Sun, and Queen Semiramis the female, there was mirror in terms of the stories of the later Jesus stories, and many other stories in other cultures that relate to exactly the same stories using different heroes, since I wrote in the book that the Gospels were actually written by a Roman Aristocratic family called the Pisos, Piso. Since I wrote in the book that these stories were eventually taken and turned into a religion by, most notably, the Roman Empire, Emperor Constantine the Great, at the Council of Nicacea in 325 A.D., and, of course, what came out of that, eventually, was the Roman Church which became the Christian religion.
Since I wrote in the book that one of the key bloodlines that I am identifying is the Merovingian bloodline that came out of the Near and Middle East into France, and, of course, has been widely written about in various books in the recent ten years or so, since I noted that in the book that the British Royal Family, including King George III, were these bloodlines, since all of that, I have, in the last ten days come across the genealogy of the George Bush family, including, of course, George W. Bush, who, surprise, surprise, is being pushed as the year-2000 President.

It only turns out that the Bush family and the Roosevelt family, who are of the same line, are genetically related to Alexander the Great, who, I think it's around 300 B.C., plundered this very area - I'm talking about Egypt, what we call now Israel, down to Babylon and across to India - this whole area I'm talking about, the Bush family and the Roosevelt family are related to him, genetically.

They are related to the Piso family, the Roman aristocratic family who wrote the Gospel stories originally. They're genetically related to Constantine the Great, the Roman Emperor who took those stories and turned it into the Christian religion, in effect, which makes the people who wrote the stories and the person who created the religion, the same bloodline.

They're genetically related to Dagobert, one of the key Merovingian line. Dagobert was said to be one of the last surviving Merovingian line, but that's not correct. The Bush family is also genetically related to George III, who was around when people like Benjamin Franklin were giving the American people the impression they were going to freedom, when actually they were going to covert control by Britain, which they've had ever since.

So when you look - and this is just a few headlines from the Bush line - when you look at the Bush line alone it supports, emphatically, these bloodlines that came out of that ancient Near and Middle Eastern area and have been brought through to be in positions of power, not least today. It is no accident, Rick, that George W. Bush, with that background, genetically, is the one they're bringing through and throwing the money at to become president in the year 2000, which is a key year for them.

So, in effect, what I'm saying is that my research is very strongly pointing to the fact that the extraterrestrials are not coming, they're not going to invade, they've actually been controlling this planet, increasingly, for thousands of years. And when I say extraterrestrials, I don't mean all extraterrestrials, I mean I'm talking about this particular group. And it seems to me that the situation is this, that-oh, the House of Windsor, by the way, are one of these bloodlines, big-time, and they know it-they're related to the Bushs, not surprisingly.

Anyway, it seems that one of the key reasons that they are trying to hold this genetic structure is that this planet is actually controlled not from the physical level, which is just one level of it, but actually from what people call the lower astral, or I call the lower fourth dimension. It is the lower cess-pit end of the dimension closest to this one. And, it seems that, talking to people who have worked on the inside with these people and taken part in their rituals -indeed, in one case, conducted them- these lower fourth-dimensional entities who, of course, the satanic rituals interact with the legendary realm of the folklore demons and all this stuff-that somehow, these particular genetic lines, in their most pure form, have a much greater vibrational resonance and vibrational sympathy with the lower fourth dimension, and therefore, can be much more easily - what we would call - possessed and taken over by these lower fourth-dimensional entities, which kind of means that if you can put these particular bloodlines, the physical body, if you like, in a position of power, you're actually putting these lower fourth-dimensional entities into positions of power, because they're working through these particular lines.

And, again and again, when you get into the genealogy, my goodness me, that takes some time and sweat, you hit the same genetic lines when you're looking at people in positions of power. It seems to me that these lower fourth-dimensional entities have actually been working through what we call the Illuminati to actually control the planet. And, while all this was unfolding, I started getting some very bizarre stories told to me.

Martin: I bet.

David Icke: And the thing about my life, Rick, in the last 10 years or so, consciously walking this journey - I now realize that I was unconsciously doing it all of my life - is that suddenly a subject heading will come into my life, and once it's appeared, I'm meeting people literally from all over the world, because I've been in 21 countries in the last two years now, and been back to quite a few of them, so I can start to see, as a result of traveling, these common themes that are coming up all over the world.

And one theme that came up last year, May '98, it had been around a little bit but I put it on the back burner. There wasn't enough evidence to talk about it, really. And that was that people had seen people in positions of power, not exclusively so, but overwhelmingly so, turn into a reptilian form and then go back to human. And, in a period of 15 days, in May 1998, I met 12 separate people in different parts of America from different walks of life and different backgrounds, in my travels, who told me the same story. I thought, "What in the hell is going on here?!"

When I came back to England, the sequence continued. I was asked by a couple of people, who were members of the House of Lords, in London, to go and talk to them at the House of Lords about the manipulation, which they also realized was going on. And I chatted with them for a while, and there was a lady at the meeting who kept saying some very interesting things about Diana, you know, the Princess of Wales. And after the meeting, I said "Look, hey, we gotta talk."

She said, "We have." And we went off and chatted.

I said, "Where did you get this information about Diana?"

She said, "My best friend was her closest confidant on things she couldn't talk about to anyone else for nine years." Now, this lady has actually appeared in the press from time-to-time as being a close friend of Diana. Anyway, she said, "I think this lady might talk to you. She's never talked to anyone else."

So, I went to see her and her name was Christine Fitzgerald. She starts telling me about the connection, all of the treatment of Diana by the Windsors, which was utterly, utterly outrageous. I haven't talked to this lady Christine Fitzgerald about these bizarre stories I'm being told by people around the world. Then, as the conversation unfolded, she said, "Oh, do you know what Diana's nickname for the Windsors was?"

I said, "No, go on."

She said, "The lizards or the reptiles." And she said, "She used to say, in all seriousness, 'They are NOT human!'"

Christine Fitzgerald went on to tell me: "You know, the Windsors are a reptilian line, they're not human." And that "the British Royal Family, and its inter-linking bloodlines, are actually reptilian, they come from a reptilian extraterrestrial race."

And I'm thinking, "Bloody hell, not another one!"

And I came back here - about an hour and a half from London - my home is in England. I knew of a guy called Ted Heath, who was Prime Minister of Britain from '70-'74, and I knew that he was involved in some serious horrendous things, like sacrificing children, and all this stuff, because of people who had seen it. And, a lady I knew, who had contacted me, wanted to tell me about her experiences with Ted Heath, so I went to see her, not to talk about shape-shifting reptilians, but to talk about Ted Heath and satanic ritual involving the elite of Britain.

And, again, but just as a quick incidental - when you follow these bloodlines from the ancient world to the present day, this satanic ritual, human sacrifice and blood ritual, even using the same deities in the rituals, is a common and constant, unchanging theme. So, it would be very surprising if the elite today weren't into this, because these bloodlines always have been, just like Bush is into it and people like that. Anyway, I went to see this lady and she told me about her experiences with Heath and stuff.

In a place called Burnham Beeches, which is an area of forested land notorious for satanic ritual, among people who have studied these things, it just so happens that, although Burnham Beeches is on the outskirts of London, not far from Heathrow Airport, the place is actually owned by the City of London, the financial district which is the epicenter of this control.

I just finished me cup o' tea - you know how you do in her house - and I was just making my way to leave, after she told me this stuff, and I said to her, just to throw away a line as I left, I said, "You know, I'm having some bizarre things happening to me at the moment." I said, "I keep meeting people who tell me that they've seen people shape-shift into bloody reptiles."

And, honestly, she grabbed her chest and she was gasping for breath like she was having a seizure.

"Oh, my God," she said, "I thought it was only me."

And she went on to tell me that she wasn't going to say that to me because she thought that even I would find that unbelievable. She said, "All that stuff I've told you about Heath and seeing him in the satanic rituals and all that stuff," she said, "I wasn't going to tell you what I also saw. He shape-shifted into a reptilian, during the ritual. What staggered me," she said, "is that none of the other participants were at all phased by it, as if it was a natural thing that always kind of happened."

This has gone on, Rick, to the present day. I was in Vancouver, speaking, and I met about 4 or 5 people who told me the same story, including a business woman, who is a real feet-on-the-ground, you know, power-dressing kind of 5,000 clients business woman. And she said she had this relationship with a guy who was Portuguese, and he just turned into a reptile in front of her.

I had just spoken at a financial conference about the manipulation of the world in the Bahamas, and two people there told me the same story. One told me how she was in a religious cult, and on one occasion, the cult leader changed into a reptile in front of her face.

And she said, what was most amazing is that he focused on her, and the others couldn't see it, but she could, and she said she just went out of the room and started driving and never stopped, really.

You know, this is now hundreds and hundreds of people who I've met from around the world, from many walks of life - a couple of television presenters who interviewed this guy live and, when they went back in the green room one said, "I had a very strange experience during that interview. The guy's face turned into a bloody reptile."

"Oh, my God," said the other, "I saw his hands turn into a reptilian."

And so this is - then you look, of course, at the ancient world, and you start to see constant references to serpents and the serpent race. Not that all references are literal - I mean, there's the serpent symbolism that's used massively - but when you get, like, the Nagas, the gods of the ancient Hindu religion, who were said to be able to take human OR reptilian form.

And then, while this is going on, Rick, I thought, "I'm sure Cathy O'Brien mentioned bloody reptiles in her candid and shocking book, with Mark Phillips, called Trance-formation Of America."

Martin: Yes.

David Icke: I got a copy of that, started flipping through the index, looking for reptiles, thinking, "My life is getting more bizarre by the minute."

Martin: (Laughter)

David Icke: And, I'm going through the references in the book and, of course, Cathy talks in the book about being with George Bush and that George Bush - and she obviously took this to be part of the mind control, she took it to be a holographic image, it was part of the mind control - but when you put this other evidence together, well, hold on a minute.

She talks about being with George Bush, and him saying that they were an extraterrestrial race that came from a "far off space place" who'd taken over the world, and no one realized it because they look human. But, she said, he changed in front of her into a reptile. She talked about being with the Bennett brothers, these politicians, political figures in America, and how they put her through a mind-control program in which they said they came from another dimension and they were inter-dimensional beings.

And she had an experience during that time of seeing a White House cocktail party where everyone turned into bloody reptiles. And then she talks in the book about being with Miguel De La Madrid, in Mexico, who was, of course, President during the Bush years, and how he told her, she said in the book, the story of the Iguana race. And, Miguel De La Madrid said that an extraterrestrial reptilian race had interbred with the ancient Mexican people because they needed to create bloodlines or bodies they could work through, and these particular bloodlines could take either human or reptilian form. She says in the book that he actually shape-shifted, not totally, but facially, into a reptilian form when she was with him.

Now, when you start putting all of this together, Rick - I have simple philosophy - I follow information, and I'll go where it takes me. If you come from, anyone comes from, any belief or background, whether it be religious, political, or whatever, and they are rigid with it, then they're never going to uncover what's going on because that belief, that rigid belief, will start to edit information when it comes toward you, and you start editing-out information that's taking you away and challenging your original belief-system.

I haven't got any of that stuff, fortunately, and so I just follow information, and it's taken me into these areas. Interestingly, too - and I'm just going back there, so I'm going to do some more on this - when I was in South Africa, about February last year, I met a Zulu shaman, a famous Zulu shaman in South Africa. I met with him for about five hours about various things.

He knew about the elite and the manipulation and the extraterrestrial connection, and all this stuff. He's in his 70s now, I mean, he's lived a long time in Africa, and is a very great expert on African legend and stories and experience. And he told me, during this chat, that he got a call in March of 1997 - this is before the August when Diana died - and this caller said that she was the Princess of Wales and wanted to talk to him.

Now, he didn't believe this, at first, and he certainly didn't believe it when she said to him that she was calling him from what, he termed, a supermarket phone. "Princesses don't call from supermarket phones," he thought.

Well, when I talked to Christine Fitzgerald about two months later, her confidant, she said, "That makes absolute sense, because Diana knew that her phones at Kensington Palace were tapped, and when she wanted a clean line, she used to go into a local department store," to what this shaman would have been a supermarket, "to use the public phone to get a clean line."

This shaman told me - and he later realized they had a connection, one of his students was a relative of Diana - and, interestingly, this shaman talks a lot about extraterrestrial connections with humanity and his own extraterrestrial experiences, of which he has had some astonishing ones.

Anyway, she said to him that she wanted to talk to him because she had something to reveal about the Windsors that would shake the world and she wanted advice in how best to do it. (Note from Stephanie Relfe: Is this why they murdered her?). And, talking to a lady who I met after Christine Fitzgerald, a lady called Arizona Wilder, who claims to have conducted rituals for the British Royal Family, that Diana knew that they were actually shape-shifting reptilians who shape-shifted during the rituals and, I said to this shaman, "What was it she wanted to reveal about the Windsors?" And he said, "I can't tell you, it's just too terrible. I don't want to get into any more trouble."

So, I said I knew that Diana knew that the Windsors were involved in the global drug-running operation and she knew that they were involved in that. And he just shook his head.

He said, "Oh, no." He said, "It was much worse than that."

And I'm going back there soon, so I'm going to have another go at finding exactly what it was.

But this Arizona Wilder lady, again, came on the scene after Christine Fitzgerald. I found her in Los Angeles, or near Los Angeles, and I went to see her, not to talk about shape-shifting reptilians, yet again, because I wasn't talking about it at the time; I was just gathering information. I went to talk to her about the rituals she said she conducted for the British Royal Family, and the Bushs, the Kissingers, and people like that in America.

Because Arizona Wilder, even though she's got red hair today, is actually blond haired, with piercing blue eyes. And the blond-haired, blue-eyed thing is fundamentally involved in all of this stuff, and what have you. Anyway, that is why Project Monarch is overwhelmingly, if not exclusively, blond-haired, blue-eyed people.

I went to talk to her about the rituals that she says she conducted. So, we're getting into this stuff, and she's telling me about the rituals at Balmoral in which, you know, human sacrifice takes place in Scottland, the Queen's Palace in Scotland, and also at Glames Castle and the Castle of Darkness, as it's called, in Belgium, which Fritz Springmeier and Cisco Wheeler talk about in their book. And I had heard all of this from other sources, I mean, Christine Fitzgerald was talking about the stuff they got up to, but then, as the conversation unfolded, Arizona said to me: "But that's not the most bizarre thing that happened."

And I thought, "Well, how much more bizarre can you get, the Queen of England sacrificing children?" And, she said, when the blood started to flow, they shape-shifted into reptiles.

And, in their reptilian form, they're very, very different - I mean, like, the Queen Mother, this sounds funny, really - but the Queen Mother is an old frail 99-year-old, but that's the physical form in three-dimensional reality. But it's not the physical form of the reptilian that's working through her, according to these people.

And I got a call from a lady in America who is the head of Parents Against Ritual Abuse. And I was talking to her, again, not about shape-shifting reptilians, but about the ritual abuse of children in America, and she said during this conversation, "Do you know, about 12 of my clients have actually reported that, during the rituals, they've seen the participants turn into reptiles." And, she said, "I've always taken it to be that they're dressing up to confuse them."

But when you take all of this together, Rick, all this emerging information, and since I've gone public on it, obviously, in the book, you start to attract people who know they can talk to you, because, you know, the thing that keeps this quiet most of the time is that people who know things and have seen things think, "Well, who's going to believe me?"

And, interestingly - and this is a true story also, and it kind of sums up the way this has been unfolding - when The Biggest Secret was at the printers in January, I got a call in America from a guy, he was just a guy who read my other books, and he said, "Hey, you got a new book coming out?"

I said, "Yeah, it's at the printers now."

He said, "What's it about?"

I said, "Well, you'll have to read it because some of it is so bizarre, if I told you about it, well, you'd think this is crazy."

So anyway, we go on chatting about what you do and where you've been and all this stuff. So then, after about ten or fifteen minutes into this conversation, he says, "Hey, you're going to think I'm mad," he said, "but have you ever come across anyone who has seen people in positions of power, like Bush, Gorbachev, Kissinger, turn into reptiles?"

I thought, "Shit, not another!"

I said, "Well, why do you ask the question?"

He said, "Because I keep seeing this." He said, "When they come on the television, I keep seeing them turn into reptiles."

So, the story has gone on - interestingly, too! I can't remember the exact word now, but I was interviewed on a radio station by the guy who does reverse speech. Have you come across that?

Martin: Yes, I have.

David Icke: Well, he wanted to talk to me about some reverse speech they'd taken from a guy Ken Bacon - do you remember the guy who was the Pentagon spokesman, or White House spokesman - Pentagon spokesman, I think, during the Kosovo war, and they had done some reverse speech on him and said, "Do you know what this means? We can't work it out."

And it was clear as day. He was making a statement about the war to the press, and in reverse it said something like, "We are the people of the snake and we" - something like, I can't remember the exact wording now, I've got it on tape in America, basically -"we are the people of the snake and we look after our own" was basically the theme of what he said, clear as day, and I nearly dropped off the chair.

So, there is something in all of this which holds the key to understanding so much about how the world has been controlled, where this world is actually controlled from, and I would strongly suggest that what we are looking at with the Kissingers and the Bushs and the Rockefellers and the Rothschilds and all these people, are actually the three-dimensional, physical expressions of a lower-fourth-dimensional consciousness and manipulation. And the physical Illuminati are merely the three-dimensional expression of the fourth-dimensional control of planet Earth.

And, interestingly too, when you go back and back and back, and you follow how the White race came out of the Near and Middle East, with these bloodlines within them, and you pick up one of those White races called the Phoenicians - they actually worshipped a guy called, one of their deities was called, St. George, in Cappadocia, who they said defeated the dragon. And because the Phoenicians actually went around 3,000 B.C. to Britain and took what we now call the British culture - which, indeed, in various forms has become the world culture - St. George in Cappadocia (Cappadocia is in what we now call Turkey) became St. George of Britain.

And another deity that the Phoenicians worshipped and took to Britain was St. Michael, who, it was said, of course, threw the serpent into the abyss - or threw the serpent onto the Earth for the final battle and all this stuff. This battling-with-serpents stuff goes on and on.
submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Help! Missing Village

I’ve been lurking on this subreddit for a little while now and if anybody can help me with this mystery it’s bound to be somebody on here.
I recently got a new phone, and with that, it’s taken me back into the rabbit hole of a missing village.
This happened to me in January of 2017
I’ll give everyone a little bit of background information first. At the time I was a mobile vacuum engineer. When you had a problem with your vacuum, I’d be the person that would show up to your house, fix the problem and then disappear. This meant working anywhere from 9-12 hour days, and traveling all across the northern parts of England and Wales. I never really had too many strange encounters, sometimes the houses could feel a little “off” or the people themselves would be a little peculiar, but nothing that every really stood out. Especially compared to the things I’ve read about here, thank God.
This particular instance is regarding a missing village. I’ll call it a missing village because that’s what it is. It’s just missing. Not there. And that’s where I’m hoping some of you may be able to help me.
It was quite a nice day in January and I was heading down into the peak District where most of my calls for the day were based. To make our jobs easier the head office would keep us in one location for the day, so, drive there, do your jobs, once you’re finished head home. Great.
I’d done a couple of jobs in the morning and my next time slot wasn’t until around 3:00pm. It was important to be prompt, sometimes the customers wouldn’t be home until the time slot they’d chosen, so no point being there early. I used my phone as a sat nav while driving to and from job locations and would always plot in the next location to see how far I would have to go once I’d finished the current job. The next job wasn’t far from my current location, but it being nearly lunch time, I decided to take a leisurely drive, find somewhere to get some lunch, sit off in the van for an hour or so and then go to the job.
So I started driving. I followed the sat nav, which wasn’t really doing much anyway, most of the time up in the peak district you’d be on one main road heading one way or the other, so I wouldn’t be getting lost any time soon. It was a beautiful winters day with a blanket of snow covering the countryside. Where I was living at the time we weren’t having any snow, so this was a really nice change of scenery and I stopped at the side of the road once or twice while driving up and down the mountains to get some photos (this becomes a little more important later on).
By this point I was getting hungrier and really needed somewhere to stop and get some food. This being the in the countryside of peak district, unless you’re in one of the few villages there, you’re not going to find a restaurant, or even a big supermarket, for that matter, around every corner.
I continued driving and some time around half one I crested a hill and came into a very small village. The single road leading in from one side and straight out the other. A few houses dotted on either side of the road and just up on the left I spotted a small grocery shop, so decided to stop and see what was available here. At the very least I could ask somebody local where my best bet would be.
The village was very quiet. There were quaint old houses and a couple of local family run shops (from what I could tell). No cars parked on the road and definitely no work done to the village in decades.
That and not a soul in sight.
The shop was open, thankfully, so I stepped inside. The shop was sort of a mix between a newsagents and a grocery shop. Just what you’d expect if you’ve ever been to a village in the middle of nowhere in England before. Inside stood the old shop keep, behind the counter, and one other customer, whom I assumed must be a local. And to my surprise freshly baked pies and pastries. The shopkeeper was friendly enough, I bought myself a pie and a pastry for lunch. I asked the shopkeeper a few questions, just to make small talk and then tried to find out how far it would be to my next location. It turned out that my next job was in the very village and he knew the old lady I’d be doing the job for. He even offered to call her up to see if she was available earlier, but I shrugged off the offer in place of an hours lunch sat in my van.
The whole I couldn’t shake the feeling of being watched by the other man in the shop though. He definitely gave off an eerie vibe. Talk about burning a hole in the back of your head.
So I enjoy my lunch and then head to the job.
There was a very narrow turning off of the main road which opened up into a little courtyard of houses. I park the van out of the way in a corner, grab my things and head to the house. Surely enough I’m greeted by the little old lady the shop keeper had said about earlier. She was a lovely old lady, as sweet as they come. She invited me, showed me to her vacuums in question and then left me to it. I’m certain she was happy with the company and being able to bend somebody's ear for an hour. At one point she even brought me some tea and biscuits.
Now being inside of one of the houses they were nothing remarkable. Her house was smaller on the inside than it looked. Old faded wallpaper, slightly peeling away, old dusty carpets that definitely hadn’t been looked after, antique tables and drawers around the side of the living room. It felt like a house your Grandma's Grandma would live in. It was a little peculiar because she seemed to have numerous vacuums, none of which worked. Some were ancient and irreparable, so I only worked on the newer ones which I would have parts for and actually be able to fix. I did offer her a newer replacement moodle (we always keep at least one newer vacuum in the van) as hers were so old and really not worth repairing. But she insisted on keeping the ones she was used to and so I got to work fixing them.
It was peaceful there, if not a little too dusty. She gave some lovely conversation, told some interesting stories while I worked, and was a lot nicer than some of the other clientele, so I was happy to spend my time there. I finished the job and she tried to offer me some additional payment for my hard work which I politely turned down. I thanked her for the tea, biscuits and stories and went on my way. I only had a couple more jobs after hers so went on my way.
And this is where things start to get odd. Now I know all of that may seem very normal. But the thing is. That village doesn’t exist. I stayed there for maybe two or three hours at most, sat in my van, ate the food, and enjoyed the beautiful view. Went to the old ladies home, fixed her vacuums and then carried on with my day. Finished off the rest of the jobs further afield and drove back home.
Now I swear I drove back the same way I came. Being on the road a lot with that job, you tend to visit the same places. The roads become familiar, you go through the same towns and villages more often than not. But on the way home, the village wasn’t there. I thought I might have been tired, or ended up on another road somehow, but I’m certain I took the same route to get me back home and I simply never drove back through the village.
This has baffled me every since and would pop into my mind every now and then. As mentioned before with the job you would travel a lot. I even ended up back in the same area later in the year. Driving the same road, coming to the crest of the hill, expecting to stop at the same stop and get another bite to eat. And nothing. Just open roads, hills on either side. The wide open countryside.
This is where the photos come in. I love taking photos, even if it’s just a quick snap on my phone. I’ve had apple phones for a while now and recently got a new one. The wonder of technology, where, in an instant, you can transfer everything from your old phone to your new one. Now, like I said earlier, I stopped on that trip. Took multiple photos throughout the area. I even have a photo of me holding the pie in my hand to show how big it was (I sent a silly photo in my family whatsapp with it covering my face).
I vividly remember taking photos of the little village.
The road leading straight through the village.
The shop front so I could remember where I got the food from.
The odd houses.
Even a photo of my van in the courtyard.
But now?
No photos.
Nothing but landscapes.
I’ve checked both phones to see if it was just a mistake, to see if some things didn’t transfer over fully.
But no, on both phones the photos are all the same. I’ve got the photos of the mountainsides covered in snow. I’ve got the photo of the pie in front of my face. But no photo of the road with the houses either side, no photo of the shop front, no photos of the little old houses and my van.
While I was going through all of this I also realised you can see the location of the photos taken. Again, clever technology right? So I check the location, pull up the map. And guess what? No village! I can clearly follow the photo trail on the map, follow it along the road, remember each stop I took to take the pictures. But then nothing. The map shows no village, not even a hint of what could have been there in the past. Just a gap. A space where the photos should have been on the map, a space where the village should have been.
I know this will sound odd and I’m not entirely sure what I even want help with. Maybe you’ll just think that I got myself mixed up and it’s in another place. Maybe you’d say I’m confusing separate occasions in my memory and I’ve had similar things happen when I’ve talked to people in person about this. But this time I have some sort of proof.. Or rather I’m now lacking what once was there. My phone shows that there was something there, used to be, and now it’s gone. I know there was a village there. I drove through it. I stopped there. I bought some food. I went into one of the homes, I spoke with the people there. But it’s all just gone.
I tried going back there on my own time to find it, but no luck. The village I stopped in is just gone. Missing without a trace.
I’ve tried looking online but that’s no use at all. Various searches for English villages really doesn’t give that many results. I’ve not seen anything about missing villages in England that’s similar to my experience or even describes the place I was.
I’m hopeful that somebody here has had a similar experience or may be a better internet sleuth than I.
I’m hopefully anyway..
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The Ins and Outs of the Kilmichael Ambush

“They discussed the Irish Question; but they never seriously contemplated the Irish Answer.”
-G. K. Chesterton, Irish Impressions 1919
99 years ago, on November 28, 1920, 36 IRA men under the command of Tom Barry laid an ambush just south of Kilmichael in West Cork for an 18 man British patrol and slaughtered them. 16 of the paramilitary policemen were killed outright. One was wounded, stumbled away from the carnage to seek shelter, and was summarily executed with his own weapon by two IRA men (not involved with the ambush) who were hiding nearby. The last one so severely injured that the IRA shooters thought he was dead; 24 hours later, he was scooped up by his comrades from the ambush site and nursed back to health to give the only British recollection of the fight.
It was the largest and bloodiest IRA action of the Anglo-Irish war. It was thought that the British superiority of numbers, logistics, and equipment made any stand up fight hopeless and so dictated that the IRA must skulk about sniping at tower guards and hitting isolated individuals and teams. 18 veteran soldiers being gunned down in the blink of an eye by some backwoods bushwhacker gang seemed to change everything.
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The Military and Political Situation in Ireland
I am going to attempt to give the background to the Anglo-Irish War of 1919-1921 in as broad of strokes as possible. My intent is to maintain focus on the ambush itself, which precludes delving too deeply into politics. However, military actions are welded firmly to political goals, and any discussion of fighting that does not give political context to them is inherently incomplete. Let them this extremely brief description suffice to satisfy both purposes.
As it stood at the end of the nineteenth century, Ireland was part of the UK the same as Wales, Scotland, and England, and was therefore represented within the British Parliament. For various reasons that convinced a decent sized majority of Irishmen (and a fair number of other ethnicities within the UK), people became convinced that Ireland needed its own Parliament to pass its own laws in order to prosper, which would give it a measure of self-sovereignty within the British Empire on par with Canada or Australia. Accordingly, Ireland had been demanding more and more insistently for Home Rule. For a variety of reasons which would needlessly elongate this section, Britain alternatively refused point blank to grant it and made false promises that Home Rule was just around the corner.
On Easter 1916, a coalition of Nationalists and Socialists joined forces in a rebellion centered in Dublin city to shove the envelope as far as it could go, asserting that mere Home Rule was insufficient. They declared the birth of a new Irish Republic, as distinct from Britain as France or Germany was.
The Easter Uprising in 1916 was utterly crushed by the superior British infantry and artillery within a few short weeks, but when the Nationalist leadership who had dared to declare independence right in the middle of the Great War were executed, their martyrdom sparked mass sympathy among the populace of Ireland. In 1918, the separatist party Sinn Fein ("Ourselves Alone") campaigned for Parliament seats on the promise they would secede from the UK if elected. They won the vote and, true to their word, they seceded to form their own Irish Parliament. The British naturally disagreed that such an action was legal or indeed possible and so declared Sinn Fein an outlaw political party. They sent troops over again to dismantle the nascent government and to keep order in the face of the simmering, belligerent rebellion, which in turn led the provisional government of the Irish Republic to organize resistance in 1919. Local militia units across the country, who swore allegiance to the Irish Republic as proclaimed on Easter Sunday 1916, formed a loose and decentralized guerrilla movement; the armed wing of the Republican movement was named, fittingly, the Irish Republican Army. The decentralization was necessary, for the leaders of IRA had no reliable and secure lines of communication and supply to their soldiers spread throughout the country. Every population center self-generated its own cadre of leaders and fighters and conducted the fighting as it saw fit- the West Cork IRA was for all intents and purposes on its own. The violence bubbled up sporadically in fits and starts as the various police, paramilitary, and military units loyal to the Crown feuded with the various “flying columns” of the IRA. The same population that had voted for Sinn Fein mostly supported the Republican cause, and this conviction only deepened when naked violence was employed against them to root out the insurgent forces.
On November 21st 1920, the de facto Commander-in-Chief of the IRA Michael Collins upped the ante of violence. Acting at last on two years' worth of carefully collected and organized information of enemy identities and movements, he sent assassins to murder every British intelligence agent and informant he could find, which turned out to be about 21 men all killed on the same morning, mostly at their own doorstep without warning. This stroke of violence not only shocked the British, it would also leave them blinded and almost incapable of detecting IRA members and helpers for the rest of the war. The British backlash was clumsy, emotional, and undisciplined. That same afternoon after Collins’ gunmen did their bloody work, the Dublin Auxiliary branch of the Royal Irish Constabulary surrounded a Gaelic football match with the apparent intent to mass search all 5,000 of them for weapons. Someone starting shooting, so all his mates started shooting, machine guns opened up on the crowd, and it was all in all about a minute and a half of pure craziness. 14 civilians died and about 65 were injured. ”Bloody Sunday” marked a significant uptick in the level of violence in Ireland.
Tom Barry of the West Cork IRA Brigade would match it just one week later at Kilmichael.
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So Who Are These People, Anyway?
The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary were recruited and formed in 1920 to add firepower and spine to the Royal Irish Constabulary, who were trying to suppress the insurgents. Demographically, the Auxiliaries had a type. They were all former Army officers, mostly jumped up from the enlisted ranks in the First World War for valor and to fill dead men's shoes- not many blue blooded noblemen among them. They averaged about three years in the trenches each. They sprang primarily from the lower and upper middle class, the sons of merchants and shopkeepers. Ethnically, they were almost a perfect cross section of the UK with Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and England being proportionately represented. Barring one or two individuals, none of them had criminal records. The average age was around 30 years old. They simply couldn't find work after the war ended and so jumped at chance to serve in Ireland.
The men of the IRA also had a type. They were mostly young men from a working class or laborer background. Most had avoided the First World War, unwilling to die for a country that denied them Home Rule, though Tom Barry himself was an exception that tested this rule; he had served in the British Army in Iraq before his exposure to Republican politics following the 1916 Easter Uprising, and had been initially distrusted in the IRA for flying the British flag over his home when he returned home. They were overwhelmingly Catholic, though interestingly there were a couple of Protestant members scattered here and there.
In the face of the experienced and well-equipped British war machine, the IRA’s primary task was to survive, for as long as they could produce “flying columns” of guerrilla fighters to harass the British forces, assassinate British civil servants, and intimidate loyalist informers, the cost of the war to the government would act as a powerful inducement to recognize Irish sovereignty. They therefore rarely took any immense risks that might lead their units to being cornered and wiped out; they could afford to have individual volunteers snatched up, arrested, and often killed, but the apparatus that recruited, organized, and directed them was fragile and almost irreplaceable.
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The Ambush Itself
To set the stage for the Kilmichael Ambush, the West Cork Auxiliaries based in Macroom were out raiding after Bloody Sunday. They hopped in their lorries every day and rode out to burn homes, terrorize women and children, assault men with rifle butts and pistol grips for speaking Irish, and murder suspected members of Sinn Fein in cold blood. That's the folk memory of how the Auxiliaries conducted counter-insurgency, and it is relatively accurate in spite of frequent exceptions. Much has been said about their brutality and lawlessness, framing them as a bunch of psychotic, sadistic hooligans. Like many stereotypes, this is based on reality, but there are many reasons to cast some doubt on the folk memory of the Auxiliaries. Many of their barn burnings and raids and killings were said to be official British policy, and this was a solid 25 years before army men found out that "just following orders" was a not a proper excuse. According to one IRA spy named who had embedded in their ranks as a sleeper agent, they were mostly good guys, but about 10% were "bad eggs"; obviously, the actions of a "bad egg" wearing a distinct uniform will be attributed to everyone wearing the uniform. Counter-insurgency too has the tendency to bring out the worst in people, as the frustration of dealing with a hostile population and not being able to separate the guerrillas from the civilians takes its toll. Finally, they are often conflated and confused with their sister unit of the Royal Irish Constabulary Special Reserve (known slangily as the Black and Tans, because their uniform was an irregular mix of army khaki and police black), who were also paramilitaries recruited from the army to bolster the police presence, but who were a) recruited from the enlisted ranks, not the officers; b) far more deserving off their reputation for brutality and lawlessness; and c) far more numerous than the Auxiliaries. These distinctions and mitigating traits were, of course, blurred a bit for the population who suffered under state sanctioned violence.
Tom Barry paints this specific ambush as an absolute necessity for the war effort. As long as the Auxiliaries can roam at will and terrorize entire counties with impunity, the population that the IRA depends on for sustainment (food, clothing, shelter, intelligence, volunteers, etc) will start to waver in their support. After all, if the IRA can’t fight back, why allow our houses to burn and our children to be threatened by armed men? What’s the point of declaring independence if we lack the strength to defend ourselves? From there, it’s but a short skip and a jump to “Why am I giving up the last of the food in our larder to provide dinner to a group of raggedy insurgents?” and “It’ll go easier on all of us if we give the police the names and home addresses of the guys in the flying column,” at which point the war is basically lost. As such, a dramatic counter strike was desperately needed.
Through intelligence given by sympathetic locals, Tom Barry noticed that the Auxiliaries were committing the cardinal sin of counter-insurgency work; they fell into a predictable pattern, taking the same route home every night. There were two stretches of their route where they were vulnerable, but one was far too close to a British outpost filled with reinforcements for comfort. The other was a country road just south of Kilmichael.
I have made an effort to recreate the ambush that Tom Barry planned: an improvised L-shaped ambush. For those who never lovingly leafed through FM 7-85 “Ranger Unit Operations”, chapter 6 of it describes it succinctly: “The L-shaped ambush is formed with the base (bottom) of the L perpendicular to the expected enemy direction of advance. This is a good ambush for a road, jungle trail, or an area where the enemy is canalized and his approach route is known.” Indeed, this matches the situation to a tee. I have no idea if Tom Barry instinctively sussed out how to set up a decent ambush from first principles or if he picked up the concept during his stint in the British Army. I suppose it hardly matters.
He divided up his force of 36 fighters into three distinct sections with some minor detachments. They were armed with captured rifles, shotguns, revolvers, bayonets, and a couple of grenades.
His three man “Command Post” (helpfully and expertly marked on my screenshot of Google Maps) adopted concealment behind a stone wall to the east of the ambuscade, staring west down the headlights of the advancing lorries. This CP would form the little leg of the L of the L-shaped ambush. Their task was to instigate the firing, for to preserve the element of surprise nobody would occupy their fighting positions until after the CP opened fire.
Section 1 with ten men was positioned mere yards away on the reverse slope of a big boulder, unable to see anything until they stood up and inched forward to peer over the top. They would function as the lower part of the long leg of the L of the L-shaped ambush, tasked with pouring flanking fire into the lorry once it was stopped. They would also be the assaulting element once the ambush was sprung.
Section 2 with ten men was strung out along the military crest of the hillside, hidden and protected by the rocky terrain. They would be the upper part of the long leg of the L. Once the patrol was fixed in place, they were to engage the second lorry in the convoy. I have no clear idea where exactly they were ensconced in, hence the question marks.
Section 3 was divided up into two groups, which I have arbitrarily labeled group A and B. Group A with six men was stationed behind some rocks to the south of the road in case the Auxiliaries dismounted and sprinted into cover on that side- trying to solve a problem before it developed, you see. Google maps shows no rocks that they could plausibly hide behind as Tom Barry said they did, so I’m not clear on where exactly they were either. I’m assuming that the field to the south has been cleared in the decades since the ambush, because this contemporaneous photo shows that the terrain south of the road was far rockier than it is today. Group B, also six men, were held in reserve somewhere north of the ambush site- they were expecting two trucks, but if there was a third or a fourth then Section 3B was tasked with maneuvering against them to prevent them from interfering with the ambush.
The remaining men were spread as scouts in all directions to provide security and advance warning of enemy movement. Tom Barry himself would take center stage, standing openly in the road in between the CP and Section 1; he's the green dot on the linked map. We’ll get to his role shortly.
This ambush was notable in two ways. First, it would be conducted at excruciatingly close range. The disparity of training between the IRA and the Auxiliaries was considerable. Due to ammunition shortages, there had only been enough bullets to allow each IRA man four live bullets to practice their aim before sending him into action, in contrast to the hundreds and thousands of rounds shot to hone marksmanship in the British army. Since there really aren’t any sharpshooters at a distance of five to ten yards- you either line up your sights onto the target or you don’t- the chosen tactics and starting positions neutralized the British advantage in arms.
Second, and very much related to the first, Tom Barry deliberately violated the cardinal rule of guerrilla warfare by selecting an ambush site with no easy exit. Every other premeditated skirmish they had ever staged had had an escape route to take if things went wrong. This time, however, neither the Auxiliaries nor the IRA would have any plausible opportunity to break contact after the first shot was fired. It was going to be (as Tom Barry gravely informed his men as they set up the ambush) a fight to the death- either the Auxiliary patrol gets wiped out, or the flying column perishes. To raise the stakes even higher, the West Cork Brigade were neither numerous nor well-stocked with weapons. At no point in the war did Tom Barry and his men have access to more than 116 rifles, and those 36 men were the cream of the crop of the whole county. If killed, and their weapons seized, they could not easily be replaced. Every egg they had was to be placed in the same basket for this fight.
The 36 IRA men got their battle plan from their captain that morning, then trudged off to take up their positions and wait. They’d marched on foot all night to reach the killing field to set up first. The owners of the house just to the south were sympathetic to the cause, but had no food for themselves, let alone a gaggle of frozen and weary riflemen. They sent a bucket of tea around instead to give the guerrillas something hot to drink. That’s how Tom Barry’s men passed the daylight hours of November 28th: soaked through from the dew and frozen in the Winter winds, empty stomachs gnawing at them, and with plenty of hours to sit still and think about what might go wrong.
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The Jaws Snap Shut
Francis Crake had been a clerk at an insurance firm, and he married his sweetheart in the same month the war broke out. On September 3rd, 1914, Private Crake enlisted with the 1st Hampshires and went to war in France.
Three years later, he was Lt. Crake.
A year later, in 1918, he was being mentioned in dispatches for conspicuous gallantry and leadership under fire.
February of 1920, he was discharged from the army.
October 3rd, 1920, seven years to the day since he joined the army as a private, Captain Crake joined the Auxiliary Division.
Two months after that, he was leading the 18 man Auxiliary patrol through West Cork. He sat in the lead vehicle, riding shotgun, heading home to Macroom after a day of raiding.
At approximately 4:05 pm, just after sunset, his convoy took the curve of the road around the darkened, rocky hillside at about 40 mph. Even without the headlights, the moon was almost full, so visibility was pretty good. He saw a man standing in the middle of the road wearing a military uniform, waving his hands as though to ask for help. Cpt. Crake ordered his driver to slow down to see what the problem was.
That man in the road was indeed wearing a military uniform, but not a British one. It was the official tunic of the IRA, though Tom Barry knew perfectly well that no British soldier would recognize it on sight. The man in the uniform with the military webbing and equipment over it was easily mistaken for a fellow Auxiliary.
Once Crake’s convoy had slowed down, the ambush was sprung. A grenade was flung into the cab, killing and mangling the driver and Crake alike. Rifle fire from the front and the left raked the men in the lead vehicle in a murderous crossfire. Behind them, the second lorry was being riddled with bullets by Section 2. Men shot rifles (designed to be accurate and deadly at a thousand yards) at men so close they could have spit on them just as easily.
The men of the lead vehicle (helpfully marked as a red square in the accompanying map) tried to dismount under fire. The survivors who did manage to get solid ground under their feet were hit by a charge as ferocious as any they’d seen in the trenches of France. They were alternately shot with pistols at close range, ran through with bayonets, clubbed down with rifle butts, and blasted with shotguns.
At some point, Temporary Cadet Cecil Guthrie escaped from the mayhem, crawling away from the rear vehicle with presumably non-fatal wounds. Guthrie was a Royal Air Force veteran, a pilot who spent the war all over the Middle East- in fact, it’s not impossible that he and Tom Barry were posted to the same base at some point, for although Tom Barry was an enlisted artilleryman and therefore unlikely to mix with the pilots, they were on the same front in roughly the same battle space and fighting the same Ottomans.
Guthrie was mentioned in dispatches in 1919 for his service in the Afghan war, where he met and fell in love with a nurse named Irene Peach. They had married earlier that year and the Mrs. Guthrie already had a child on the way; indeed, she was mere miles north of him at his base in Macroom, waiting patiently for his patrol to return. He scrambled into the dark, away from the Kilmichael ambush. He would make his way on foot four miles across the countryside towards safety, but two miles short of Macroom, Guthrie would try to get help at a civilian house. Unfortunately for Guthrie, two IRA men were hiding there, and they recognized the ragged, wounded man by face.
You see, a month before, an unarmed man named James Lehane has been snatched up by Guthrie’s unit in a raid and murdered without trial on suspicion of being an IRA volunteer. Witnesses had fingered Guthrie as the man who had emptied his revolver into Lehane at point blank range and in cold blood. It’s like I told you, counter-insurgency brings out the worst in people. Guthrie was executed with his own gun and his body was tossed into a nearby bog. Years later, after the Treaty, the Irish government had his remains dragged out and given a proper burial in deference to his widow and daughter, though there is no real way to know if the body they buried was in fact his or not.
As you can see from this updated map, the Auxiliaries of the lead truck were all killed. Those in the rear truck were at a lethal disadvantage. Tom Barry organized his CP and Section 1 and led them west down the road to fire into the enemy rear. The survivors of the second truck now were under fire from the hill to the north, the rocks from the south, and the road to the east. They had no cover at all save for the broken down lorry, which was not even bullet proof to start with. The next day, when a sister company from the Auxiliaries mapped out the battlefield and marked where the dead had dropped. The lead truck’s dead were bunched up in a tight clump, and the rear truck’s detachment were scattered across the fields. This indicates that the dismounted survivors of the rear truck scattered and were hunted down as individuals.
Here, presumably, Temporary Cadet Frederick Forde was dropped by a gunshot wound to the head. Forde was born to be a soldier; he grew up as a military brat in India and applied to the Royal Military Academy before the Great War even broke out. He commissioned in 1915 and served as an artilleryman in the Balkans, Egypt, and Palestine; at some point, just like Guthrie, Forde might well have bumped into the very man who had organized the ambush he’d been driven into.
By both Forde’s and Tom Barry’s account, the IRA finished off the wounded and stripped the bodies of ammunition, grabbed the dropped rifles, and searched the bodies for papers that might bear valuable intelligence.
Two of the Irishmen- Michael McCarthy, the leader of Section 2, and Jim O’Sullivan- were stretched out dead in the damp grass. They had died from Auxiliary shots from the rear truck. Sullivan in particular died under highly controversial circumstances that I will get to in a minute. Patrick Deasy, aged 16, was also hit, and hit bad. Pat Deasy was the little brother of 22 year old Liam Deasy. The two brothers had served in the West Cork IRA together, and when the Treaty came into effect the following year Liam would bitterly reject it. Both Liam Deasy and Tom Barry alike would end up on the Anti-Treaty side in the coming Irish Civil War, dodging policemen and soldiers of the Irish Free State instead of British policemen and soldiers, ambushing their former IRA comrades in arms instead of the Auxiliaries. Tom Barry would be cooling his heels in a Free State prison cell when his friend Liam Deasy set a long range ambush that would see Michael Collins shot to death in 1922.
However, all of that is in their future. That evening of the 28th of November, Liam’s little brother Pat was begging his commander for a drink of water. Tom Barry knew that giving water to a man with such a stomach wound would be lethal, so he promised him a cup of tea when they got to safety. Pat Deasy didn’t survive long enough to drink it.
Many of the IRA men were physically sick to their stomachs by what they had seen and done- by Tom Barry’s account, one IRA man had been standing so close to his victim that he had had blood splashed into his mouth when he shot the Auxiliary in the neck. The men of the West Cork brigade had learned the same lesson that the dead had learned in the Great War- violent death at close quarters was an intense and emotional experience. Noting that they had been shaken badly by the sheer violence of their own attack, Tom Barry found it necessary to spend valuable time parading them around the ambuscade site in close order drill- left, left, left right, about face, present arms, forward march, left face, right face, shoulder arms, left, left, left right- purely to settle their nerves and restore discipline. The drill was concluded by saluting their three slain comrades who were laid out before them.
The whole business took about a half hour from the initial shots until the flying column was marching off into the dark with their newly captured arms and ammunition, using their head-start to avoid the inevitable counterattack that would come once the results of the ambush were discovered.
The rains poured down heavy that night; black clouds blocked out the bright moonlight. When Forde’s comrades saw that Crake’s patrol had failed to return on time, they sent out a search party but in the dark and stormy night had found nothing. They tried again in the morning and found the site of the massacre easily this time. It is nothing short of miraculous that Forde survived until morning, and then survived the trip to the Battalion surgeon. He would end up with a medical discharge at the highest pension rate available at the time, which was only fair, for he would be paralyzed for life.
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The Controversies and Mysteries That We Are Never Going to Solve
The real problem here is that there are two primary sources for the Kilmichael ambush- Tom Barry’s memoir Guerrilla Days in Ireland and similar recollections from surviving volunteers given years or decades later, and the British account based on Forde’s recollection and on physical evidence collected the following day. I am happy to assume the truth when they are in agreement with each other, and even reasonably on board with details given by one account but not the other. However, when they assert conflicting facts, we are forced to play the part of the courtroom lawyer and the armchair psychologist by questioning sources and applying logic and unraveling unlikely alibis.
For instance, just after the ambush, a local coroner conducted a “superficial examination” and concluded that some of the bodies had been mutilated post-mortem with “an axe or some kind of similar heavy, sharp tool.” Forde’s personal account seems to confirm it- a fellow Auxiliary speaking of Forde’s private recollection claimed that “[t]he leader appeared to be an enormous red headed Irishman who personally inspected each body for signs of life. He was armed with a pistil [sic] and a small axe. The last thing Forde remembers was lying on the road with the red headed giant bending over him taking a swing at his head with the axe.”
Whereas Tom Barry stoutly denies any axe swinging or mutilation whatsoever, labeling it a vicious piece of British propaganda.
So just what are we to make of this?
Well, one, Forde was confused about a lot of things. He thought that there was about 100 IRA dressed as British soldiers, when there was only about 30 shooting in total and only one had a a uniform on. He thought that they had a machine gun and a mess of Tommy guns, when they absolutely didn’t. The guy walked into a maelstrom of chaotic violence and then got shot in the head, so how good could his memory possibly be? Not to mention that he described Tom Barry as an enormous, red-headed giant, while in real life he looked like he might go into a food coma if you fed him half of a ham and cheese sandwich. And it’s not like the British Empire held itself to a high moral standard when it comes to propaganda and spreading lies; the story that the West Cork IRA had mutilated the bodies hit the newspaper the day after the ambush, long before Forde was able to be properly debriefed. Come to that, Forde’s medical discharge stated that his head wound came from a gunshot with no mention of any other cause.
Then again, Tom Barry’s account may also be unreliable. He denied the allegation, sure, but he was also completely unaware at the time of his memoir in 1949 that Forde had survived at all. He was under the impression that 17 men had died by their trucks, and the 18th has escaped only to be hunted down and tossed into the bog the day after. So his account was made under the impression that no British eye-witness could possibly gain-say him. One might ask, what’s the point of desecrating the dead to make a point only to deny it later? The obvious answer is that the axe chopping was a spur of the moment, adrenaline-pumping-through-his-veins kind of thing. That is the exact kind of thing that an insurgent commander would need to stringently deny and cover up if he wanted to win the propaganda war.
If I had to make a call, which I really don’t want to do because I’d be standing on very shaky ground, I’d say that any post-mortem mutilation was a natural result of close quarters violence and not a deliberate attempt to subject the fallen to dishonorable degradation. I can kind of construct a timeline of it- the coroner takes a peek at a series of badly damaged corpses, ravaged as they were by grenades and bayonets and shotguns, and comments, “Jeez, it almost looks like someone took an axe to this guy.” Some savvy British spook then spreads the story far and wide that the savage Irish chopped up the dead like wild Injuns, Forde’s memory is influenced by the official story, and Tom Barry has to try to ignore all damage he ordered done to the enemy after they hit the dirt to counter the accusation. A nice, neat, clean interpretation of events, which is as plausible as any other fictional story because we simply don’t know.
We’ve already covered the controversial use of a uniform in an act of deceit. The British were convinced that the IRA used stolen uniforms to deceive Crake’s patrol, which infuriated them to no end. Tom Barry’s stance was that it was not only a practical strategy, but also perfectly above board because the IRA was a proper army under the leadership of a legitimate government, and the fact that the British couldn’t recognize the tunic on sight the way they could recognize a German or Italian uniform was their problem, not his. Deciding how foul and dishonorable a trick it was probably depends on your politics.
But the pinnacle of the controversy revolves around the narrative of “the false surrender”. Just as the British accused the IRA of mutilation, so to did the IRA accuse the British of faking a surrender to kill their attackers.
Tom Barry’s account is a clean cut narrative- once the ambush was sprung and Section 1 pushed west down the road to engage the rear truck, the British called out to surrender and threw down their rifles. The firing stopped, the Irishmen exposed themselves by walking forward to collect the prisoners, and the Auxiliaries opened fire with their pistols, killing Sullivan and mortally wounding Deasy (McCarthy had been shot and killed in the initial outbreak of gunfire). Tom Barry, in a fury, ordered them “annihilated” for their dishonorable fake out and had his men keep firing into the dead bodies for a minute or two to make sure of them.
There are reasons to doubt such a story.
One, Forde contradicts it. He claims the IRA did capture individuals after the fighting stopped and then executed them all one by one. Two, other volunteers who had taken part in the ambush being interviewed years after the fact offer a slightly different story- that they enemy tried to surrender and then drew pistols, sure, but not all of them. One volunteer, Jack O'Sullivan, testified that he disarmed a wounded Auxiliary but “[h]e was walking him up the road as a prisoner when a shot dropped him at his feet". Another volunteer recalled that Jim Sullivan had been shot before the surrender, not during. And three, frankly, Tom Barry’s story of the false surrender simply makes no sense.
How on earth could an ambushed squad, squirming about desperately under fire, possibly have concocted a plot to fake a surrender solely to get a confirmed kill or two? Why the hell would they? The West Cork Brigade had an established pattern of taking prisoners and letting them go again- it was broadly understood that if the IRA caught you flat-footed they’d take your rifle and ammo and send you off- so why commit suicide by opening fire after the shooting stopped? What kind of fast paced discussion among the dismounted and scattered men of the rear truck led them to think that faking a surrender would work out?
The ugliest explanation I’ve heard is that Tom Barry intended from the start to give no quarter- after all, if you’ll recall, the whole point to the ambush was to make a dramatic counter attack and prove that you’d couldn’t raid West Cork without paying for it. What makes the point clearer, jumping a couple of guys and disarming them, or slaughtering them all to a man? By this theory, after the initial volleys, the surviving Auxiliaries had tossed their rifles and given up only to be massacred as prisoners.
Tom Barry wrote his account in 1949, almost thirty years after the fact. His story is neat and clear cut and flows logically from point to point: the exact kind of clarity of vision that is deeply implausible during the rapid clash of arms that was the Kilmichael Ambush. I just don’t believe it. Based on the volunteers’ testimony, I can believe that in the confusion, some Auxiliaries tried to surrender at the same moment when others tried to keep fighting, and that the IRA vengefully slew them all in the heat of the moment, and that Tom Barry had decades to mull it over and decide that since those Auxies had sneakily murdered Jim Sullivan and young Pat Deasy with their false surrender, they had deserved what they got.
But I really don’t know. All the witnesses are dead and nobody involved had any great interest in the Truth for Truth’s sake.
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Reflections
The question naturally arises about why I bothered to do this write up. After all, not only did the Kilmichael Ambush happen before my grandparents were even born, but it’s not even my heritage. I’m neither Irish nor British; I lack a dog in this fight. The honest but surface answer is that I’m a nerd and I like reading up about wars. Even so, as an American, I have plenty of material to geek out over- Saratoga, Gettysburg, Iwo Jima, the retreat from the Chosin Reservoir. Why this time and place?
An answer that cuts a little deeper into the issue is that I was once involved at the ground level with a counter-insurgency myself, though my role in the proceedings was not terribly dramatic. The ethnic and cultural differences between us and the insurgents were considerable, and it takes an immense amount of effort for me to even try and step into the other guys’ shoes and see the world from their point of view. It is fascinating for me to study another insurgency from not too long ago with an entirely different cast of characters, both of whose cultural backgrounds are present in my own society. The patterns of the Anglo-Irish war are similar enough to Afghanistan that I find them achingly familiar, and yet altered enough to startle me at the same time.
As well, I was deeply impressed by how small of a scale this ambush was on. Twenty men killed and one wounded was considered a major event. Compare that to the Somme, or to Austerlitz, or God save us all to the charnel house of frozen hell that was Stalingrad. Twenty deaths wouldn’t even show up as a blip on the radar in a big war. It is easy to reduce humans to mere numbers when the scale is big enough. 20,000 marching there, 5,000 dead and twice that wounded, a small detachment of 200 sent to hold that bridge, a big push of 60,000 attacking the left.... the human mind can’t handle the amount of empathy it takes to process that many people suffering and dying. But with so few people involved, you can put names and histories onto corpses and get a proper perspective on how God-awful and cruel the whole business of war really is.
A few weeks back, I got into an argument with someone who suggested half-seriously- purely as a hypothetical- that we ought to send troops to Mexico to stamp down on the cartels to help reassert the Mexican government’s control. I pointed out that such an action would be pretty pointless, since the starting conditions that created the cartels would remain after we came, killed, and left. He responded that the number of the cartels’ potential recruits would run out sooner or later. In effect, he argued that if we killed off enough military age males, potentially tens of millions of people, the cartel crackdown would be permanent.
And I thought to myself, “I would bet money that this guy has never so much as been in a fistfight before. If he had ever hurt somebody bad, or seen them hurt bad before his very eyes, or gotten hurt bad himself, he’d know just how criminally insane his suggestion was.”
It worries me that people whose only exposure to war is video games, movies, and gushing reports of steely-eyed elite commandos taking the fight to the jihadis are so instinctively enthusiastic about it. It bothers me that people without skin in the game will happily vote their way towards armed conflict without bothering to think through whether people truly need to suffer and die en masse over the issue at hand. I’m no pacifist myself, you must understand. It just seems to me that people who are disassociated from the reality of war have a tendency to ruin things for everyone else.
However, all such moralizing is ultimately secondary to my purpose. The impulse to tell the tale of the Kilmichael Ambush is an old one, for the telling of war stories is an ancient tradition. As far back as Homer's Iliad, people have been huddling around campfires to gush about this hero's courage, to scorn that villain's cruelty, to mourn the death and agony inflicted upon the innocent, and to retread in the footsteps of the dead and buried soldiers of yesteryear. Undoubtedly there is some clever sociological explanation for why humans of all cultural backgrounds do this, but I need no justification for it. The campfire is replaced by a computer screen and the audience is full of strangers instead of kin and allies, but the form is the same, and in my opinion that is what matters.
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England 25 v 28 Wales - Funny Interview Highlights: England 33 - 19 Wales Welsh Spanish Rugby pundit reaction to England vs Wales RWC 2015 A Barnstorming 5 Minutes Of Welsh Rugby Genius England vs Wales Game 1 2019

However, unlike in England, the Welsh Government’s version of the policy stipulates that it does not apply to betting shops. Wales has more than 300 betting shops, plus four casinos, all of which face financial ruin unless the Welsh Government steps in. Other parts of the hospitality, leisure and entertainment industries have received help England vs Wales: Bet on England to win but not convincingly History won’t be repeated as the England coach experiments against a strong Wales side Tuilagi to make debut as Stevens and Armitage return to England fold ENGLAND 24-12 Ireland. WALES 23-27 France. Head-to-head: Wales 13-6 England, England 33-19 Wales, Wales 21-13, England 12-6 Wales, Wales 16-21 England. Join bwin today and receive up to £10 money back as a FreeBet if your first wager at odds of 1/1 (2.0) or greater is a loser! Terms and conditions apply. Six Nations betting England v Wales Tips & Betting Preview. Danny Till | 16:39 Thursday 5th March 2020. Danny Till has two selections for England v Wales on Sunday. After the coronavirus saw the cancellation of Ireland against Italy, the only Six Nations on Saturday see England welcome Wales to Twickenham. Rugby4Cast's rugby prediction for England v Wales at Twickenham, London on 20200307, part of The Six Nations. View all The Six Nations predictions.

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England 25 v 28 Wales - Funny Interview

England vs Wales - 2015 Rugby World Cup Highlights - Duration: 14:38. Vinny Mac 850,629 views. 14:38. Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help England vs Wales Rugby World Cup 2015 Full hame - Duration: 1:40:30. Tick Try 230,249 views. 1:40:30. Joe Cokanasiga Tribute - England's New Star - Duration: 4:28. Rugby's greatest rivalry was settled again on Saturday, as underdogs Wales upset England in a remarkable second-half display. So, how good were Wales, and ha... England vs Wales - 2015 Rugby World Cup Highlights - Duration: 14:38. Vinny Mac 847,758 views. 14:38. A Barnstorming 5 Minutes Of Welsh Rugby Genius - Duration: 4:34. Brent Graham is joined by a team of rugby betting experts to discuss the weekends action from a betting angle. The show airs every Thursday night at 21h00 and this weeks show will focus on Super ...